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Automated Demand Response Technologies and Demonstration in New York City Using OpenADR

abilities of existing buildinntrol systems and protocnon for large comnI buildings to have several systenices (ie, HVAC, lighting, electric, security, etc )used for building operation A centralized BMStegrates individya seamless process if all systems/devices use an openprotocol (ie BacNet, Modbus, Lonworks, eth fabetween diffeendors systems Open buildindor -neutral standard usethin a facility supporting all building systems and devices(OpenADR, on the other hand, is a smart grid data protocol deveacilitate interoperable exchangeof information relating to electricity market information, transacetc )The use of an open buildingmmunication protocol is advantageous for Auto-DR when multiple systems/devices needrespond to the same OpenADR signals Three of the four demonstration sites BMS use BACnet as theproprietary protocolAuto-DR Equipment Installation and ProgrammingEach demonstration building had a vendor-specific BMsAutomated Logic Corporations WebctRLOElectrics AndotJohnson Control Inc, s Legacy respectivelyIstallations for the project

Programming of the Auto-DRet-point changes and fan speed reduction We proposed lighting strategies for two buildings in addition"gwho can program in each vendors software Most of the control strategies were HVAC-related, suchhe HVAC strategies However, the lighting system was not integrated into the bms prior to the projectand additions would increase costs and further delay the projectConclusions and Next StepAuto-DR implememethods and dr controdemonstraThe demonstration buildinautomated to provide event-driven demand response, price response, andding to OpenADR signalontrol strateg ordesigned to curtaildemand charges as well as Dften the first to be automated because they were effective at lowering demand and theycould be easily controlled through the facilitys BMs The strategiesnal hours (ieg)could not be automated because they require a site engineer to bepresent by the NYC Fire Code The implementation of Auto-DR system in demonstration buildingsng control systems andtion protocols The building systems thatdding automation communication protocol were casier to automate than the ones useddifferent vendors to activate control strategies according to Open ADR signaTo this point, we concluded that 1)OpenADRan support the price and DR interactions defined by theier through Auto-DR; and 3)Auto-DR helps customer's DR participation by eliminating human lada cregulated and restructured market in NYS; 2) price respo2013 The DRng has taken place thro

1 IntroductionDemand re(DR)-allowings to respond to reliability requests and marketchanging electricity use from their normal consumption patterntinues to bndamental smart-grid improvement thatemand, Large customers are often the first and most cost effective target for dr because they are majorributors to peak demand for electricity and they are equipped with centralized building managementercise their full dR potential However, today most adjustemand response(Auto- DR)[I] By reducing the need for humaucant urly price response and daily peakdone manually, makinp, Auto-DR can reduce theoperational burden to provide real-time response and lower the cost associated withleverage the flexibility of their buildings by autorprice and reliability signals Therefore, Auto-DR can help make the grid more sustainable and coOctober 2011 the Demand Response Research Center(DRRResearch and Development Authority (NYSERDAnitration projectted in New York CityYork States(NYSs) marketprovides several mechanismsthe grid

These include hourly pricestraints: retail demand tariffs and utility DR prfor distributioconstraintsNew York Independent System Operator (NYIso)demonstrate how OpenADR can automate and simplify interactions between buildings and variousstakeholders in NYS including the NYIso, utilities, retail energy providers (REPs), andproviders(Cstomate building control systerdemand management according to OpenADR signals; ande customers bvely managingThe rest of thesale clectricganizedChapter 2, we provide an oDRst smart-grid interactions between the stakeholders in NYS In Ceneral methods used for Auto-DR implementation in large commercial buildings in NYC In Chapter 5we describe the specific demonstration buildings and DR strategies developed for each participatingbuilding Lastly, we summarize the key findings in Chapter 6 and suggest future research opportunities

2 BackgroundPrior to the project implementation, the DRRC commissionedstudy of the wholesale and retailelectricity markets in NYS: thPricing(MHP)[2, 3opportunities under the day-ahead hourly pricing The demonstration sites for this project are in Manhattaand therefore in Con Edison's service territory1 Demand Response Forms Currently Present in New York StateThe NYIso administers several DR market programs aligned to the following wholesale marketsCapacity(installed capacity)(day-ahead balAdditionally, utilities offer out-of-market DR programs to address theion- and distributionconstraints andpresent in NYS: 1)facilityad control, 3)reliability DR programs(curtailment and distributed generation)and 4) dynamic pricingDirect load control in NYsCon Edison program specific to smaamined in this project, but this project will examine Auto-DRf facilitating the other threens are offered by the NYIso and utilitie 1 listsrvice type, and trigger mechanncentive-based programsntly available in NYcTable 1

Demand response curtailment programs in New York CityProgram NameOperatorService TypetRiggertalled Capacity Special Case(SCRCapacity2 Emergency Demand Response Program(EDRPNYISOReliability3 Commercial System Relief Program (CSRP)(aka Peastribution Load Relief Program(DLRP)(aka Contingency)nReliabilityEnergy, Reson bidCustomers are compensated for committing to reduce their electricity use during DR events by receivingrket prices and tariffs respectively Customers typicallyate in curtailment programs through CSPs, CSPs manage a portfolduring dr events as well as aggregating smaller resourcesns in wholesale pduce changes in cunergy consumption behavior in addition to the utility tariff conts such as demand/delivery chargesc pricing existstariff for electricity for large commercial and industrial customers which indexes energy supplyMHP was mandated as part of the decision made by the State of New York Public Service Commission in 2(X5 14

Weekend and holidayZoneFigure 1 Price duration curves: New York City LBMP from Sept 201l to Aug 2012Da LBMP didry significantly between weekdays and weekend/holiday, The price mospercentne price increased upMWh

When plotted against the time of day, as shown in Figure 2was clear that the priponding to the top one peromer afternoon)and heating(winter morning and evening)s300/200Mh>LBMP≥s100Mh米s100MWh>LBMP≥s98MWhFigure 2 Distribution of New York City LBMP over month and time-of-day during the top 1%o ofInd aug 2012Therefore, controlling loads during the top oneave helped custouce their electricity bills were they on MHuld be true for retailpeak hours by large customease the efficiencthe long run 9, 101ditionly charges, large customers under Con Edisons Service Classifi9(SC-9)or thosetyows the table of Con Edisons delivery charges under SC-9, Rate Il- Time-of-Day applied to customersmand exceeds 1500 k

springSupplyDeliveryure 4 Con Edison: predicted electricity bill breakdown for aoffice building in 2011are summarized belowDespite of thece variationnare of the customere-year period we analyzed Delivery cooutweighthe Con edison's mhp scenariIn the case of NYPA, most of the delivery charges came from summer months, representO% of the total annual electricity cost

Under NYPA, the customer paid more for supply (573%an delivery (407%) for this yearby optimizing energy usage arolled bg peak demand during expensive periodsOpenADR can help customers reduce their energy bills by automating price response and peakIt is worlalldemonstrationenchase electricity fiding taking their supplyNYPAme-of-day rate For the puassumed that the demonstratioIP tariff and therefore exposed all of theirconsumption to the day-ahead hourly price varia

Automated Demand Response Technologies and Demonstrationn New York City using OpenADRPrepared forTHE NEW YORK STATENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITYAnthony abatePreparedLAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORYBerkeley CAJoyce Jihyun KimNYSERDA Agreement No 20

NotThisaredBerkeley National Laboratory in theperforworkored by the New York State Energy Research and Develhereafter NYSERDA) The opexpressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of NYSERIthe state of New york and refeto any specific product, service, process, or metho

d does notf it Further NYSERDA

the State ofparticular purpose or merchantability of any product, apparatus, orcompleteness, or accuracy of any processes, methods, or other information contained, described, disclosedeferred to in this report NYSERDA, the State of New York, and the contractor makeresentaf any product, apparatus, process, methodnot infringe privatelywned rights and will assume no liability for any loss, injury, or damage resulting from, or occurring inconnection with, the use of information contained, described, disclosed, or referred to in this reportDisclaimerThis dwork sponsored by the united statesment while thiscontain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any ageof the uity of California,wned rights Reference hereany specific commercial product, processby its trade narademarkherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsemecommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof, or The regents ofthe University of California The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do noy statereflect those of the united states gotgents

AcknowledgementsThe workcoordinated by theBerkeley National Laboratory andandedork State Energy Researchored in part by the Demand response resefunded by theCalifornia Energyunder Work for Others Contract No 500-03-026 and by the U

S Department ofder contract noDE-ACO2-05CH1 123

AbstractDemand response (DR)-allowing custopond to reliability requests and marketf demand-side management and a fundamental smart-grid improvement that linksdemand Since October 2011, the Demand Response Research Center at Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory and New York State Energy Research and Developidemonstration project enabling Automated Demand Response(Auto-DR) in large commercial buildingsk City using Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) communicationcular

this projectdemonstrating how OpenADRomate and simplifybuildings andbeholders in New York State including the independentsystem operator, utilities, retail energy providers, and curesent methods to automate control strategies via building managemand response, price response andgement based on Open ADR signals We also presenttrol opportunities under day-aheadategies developed for demonstration buildings Lastly, we discuss the communicationAuto-DR system designed for the demonstration project to automate priponse and dp architecture andevorcial building, demand response, dynamic pricing, mandatory hourly pricing, OpenADEOpen Automated Demand Response, price response, smart grid

Table of Contents2 BackgroundNew york sOpen ADR Sample4OpenADR Communication Architecture and Security4

3 Site Auto-DR Curtailment Modes and Open ADR Signals5Site DescriptionDR CStrategiese researchReferencesAppendix A: DRAS Cyber Security PlanAppendix B: EquipAppendix C: Demonstration Site Summary

List of figuresFigure 1 Price durationk City LBMP from Sept 20Figure 2 Distribution of New York City LBMEnth and time-of-day during the top I of the timeFigure 3 NYPA: actual electricity bill breakdoe oftice building in 20Edison: predicted electricity bill breakdown for a sample office building in 2011Figure 5 OpenADR 20 Event PUSH Pattern (Source: OpenADR 20bFigure 7 OpenADRcation architecture

based drrk cFigure 9 OpenADRcation architecture for the new york demonstration siteR System Configuration for Buildings with Open ProtocoFigure 11 Auto-DR System Caration for Buildings with Proprietary ProtocolFigure 13 Demonstration Site Location( Source: Google Map)List of tablesTable 1 Demand response curtailment programs in New York CiTable 2 con Edison sc-9- General large Rate-of-Day Delivery ChargeTable 3 Demonstration site summariesTable 4 Auto-DR Strategies for Demonstration Site

October 2011 the Demand ResResearch Center (DRRC)at Lawrence Berkeley Nationalproject( Auto-DRge commercialIdings located in New York City (NYC)usand Response(Open ADR) Thierim report details the overall project concept,Currently, Auto-DR functionalitytimeOpenADR is an open and interoperable communication standard that facilitates smart-grid informatione andarious entities such as utilities, system operators, aggregators,hese interactions are definedserver transactions via Internet using XMITensible Markuan other demandinfrastructure(AMD) basedOpen ADR messages are used toemand(e g,utilities, system operascribing clientssites Afication, OpenADRAs a machine-to-machine standard, OpenADRnteract with buildings and industrial control systemat are preprogrammed to take action based on DR or price sia fully automated fashion with noanual intervention As a result the demarsed more frequently in smart gridYork State’s(NYs’s) market structureles several mechanisms intended to encourage largerers to reduce their impact on the grid

These include hourly prices for energy constraints; retailnd tariffs and utility Dr programs for distribution system constraints: wholesale DR for capacitySystem Operator (NYISO) OpenADR supports all of the common NYISO, utility, retail energy provider(REP)and curtailment service provider (CPS) interactions with commercial customers in NYSIndividually, these interactions are not complicated, However, as the number of interactioultiple interactions also increases Open ADR can simplify this processby standardizing how each will present its signals in a standards-based machine readableer for more buildings to respond in ways for the benefit of a smarter gird in NYsThe project focuses on following)demonstrate how OpenADRate and simplify interactions between buildings and various2) automate building control systems to provide event-driven demand response, price response, andmand management according to OpenADR signals: ar3)provide costners by actively managingahead hourly pricesand demand chargesUsing OpenADR, the nyiso or utilitieuding the program type,date time and duratOpenADRcate a DRascribe to their CSP's OpenADR signal toevent information Upon the receipt of OpenADRrespond autecombination of both If the response is automatnADR signalmthe facilitys building managementMs system could alsoty operators

Price responseginal Price) prices in OpenADRUtilities and rEPsals from the nyiso and deternastmreflect the whe markeEnd-ull the Open ADIinformation from a utility, a ReP or the Iso via their OpenADRption accordingly The buildings could dynamicalltrol and optimize loads tocosts according to the day-ahead price variations If the buildings do not have the abilityrocess the dynamic price information and make decisions about how to respond to that information, theOpenADR server can generate simple operation mode (Normal, Modeuildings based on the price information The buildings can then trigger pre-programmed control strategiesbased on the simple operation modeNYS, customers pay delivery charges that are largely based on the maximum demandh billincle to reflect the cost of the distribution infrastructure Typically, the delivery charges for largeustomers are more expensive inimportant thatbills The OpenADR server can assist the buildings peak load management by monitoring electric demandng a preset thresholdAuto-DR Demonstration in NYcted for the demonstration project Preferences were given to the bupresented the typical construction of largeincentive-based DR programs through CSPs, Prior to this project,he load reduction at these buildings was provided through manualHVAC, lighting, and otherstemsOpenADR Communication Architecturewnloadable spreadsheet fornthe nyiso website and areEdison), and CSPs did not publishDR signals using the Open ADR protocol, the projectto mimic the transfer of these signalsnese entities to the facilities using(MHP)tariff are billed under Rider M for their electricity supply

Under this rider, the cost of energy isroughly calculated based on the custtual hourge multiplied by the NYISOs dayhead zonal locational based marginal price (DA LBMP) Taccount forke taxes and adjustments wary hourly, Ttandards-based machine readablericing signals, the projects OpenADR seapes Da LBMP published on the NYiSo's website andverts the datOpenADR data models for cach dayFor this project,a similar conversmachine-readable OpenADRSP sends dr test/event notificathe customer via email, the OpenADR server wouldeceive the same email and convert the message into Open ADR signatomation is equipped with Open ADR client software that reads both the OpenADR signals for dailyices, day-ahead DRns and day-of DRIs The facilitys BMS activatesstrategies The OpenADRg purposes All inforn exchange is accomplished through a secure Internet connection withBuilding Auto-DR System Design and Configuration