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Cooling the Planet Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

DisclaimerThis document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government insupport of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment(SEAD) initiative While thisdocument is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor anyagencies thereof, SEAD participatingments not any agencies thereof, the SEAD OperatingAgent, The Regents of the University of California, Navigant Consulting Inc nor any of theirolied, orlegal responsibility for theaccuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed,or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights

Reference herein to any specifiercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise,does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by theUnited States Government or any agency thereof, SEAD Participating gorthereof, the SEAD Operating Agent, Navigant Consulting Inc or The Regents of the University ofCalifornia The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarilythose of the United States Government or any agency thereof, SEAD Participating Governments orny agencies thereof, the SEAD Operating Agent, Navigant Consulting Inc or The Regents of theUErnest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer

whichderived fromwith manufacd other industrial expetypical of fixed speed split systems found around the world butthe lefficient kind of product one can find on the market Thus the analysis starts from a mid-market poinuch of the world roOnce the base case is simulated the cost and energy efficienres are simulatedsuch that all 1728 possible mutually exclusive options have been simulated for each economy Local labor,andmy, basednation of sources such as literature, estimated factory gate costs,retail prices, expert contacts, and official statisticsThe approach outlined above geneefficiencyes for eachincludingmanufacturer(or factory gate) costs and conding todesign change The efficiecalculated using climate specific and local hours of use datagenerating different efficiency levels for the same model in different economifficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Energy Savings MetricsWhile the cfficicncy at full load ic the energy efficicncy ratio(EEr) has been theetric historicallair conditioners only operate at full load for a small proportion of the time Theseasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) gives a better approximagfor performance duringccurring from tistatistically repreve metric of annualaverage energy efficietly such metrics are in place in Japan(called the Annual PerformanceFactor or APF) and the USA/ Canada(known as the SEER)

For this study we have chosen to use the neEuropean Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio(ESEER), because unlike the other two metrics it also takesf energyhe heating system for reversible units and hence is likely to be more representative of pertwhen they are in use Accordingly, all results in the report are reported in terms of the ESEERCE), which is calculated by dividing the annualized incremental cost of a design change bycremental energy saved by the design change per year The design change is considered with respect to adesign corresponding to the market average efficiency level in each economyrved electricity(CCE)are calculated as follows: a)CCE to the manufacturer,(CCEm), which considers the incremental cost of the higher cfficicncy model at the factory gatemanufacturer and b)CCe to the consumer, (CCEc), which considers the incremental cost of the higheror end user The formeric(CCEm)isthan the latter(CCe)markups and installationeffectivenea marketprogram such as a utility piIn this study we consider window and undueACs" The global Room AC market is dominated by unducted split-packagon the us as msplit) air conditioners, with a trend towards thesey from windentral air conditged or split), are described in brief in Chapter 2, buteportthe different types of ACs, pleaseChapter 2, while the trend toward split-packaged ACs is discussed further in Section 3

anufacturer, while CCE would be usedthe cost effectiveness a consr a minimum energy performance standard ( MEPS) programEre cost effective if Cce is lower than the cost of electricity, given thty varies across different stakeholders (ic consumers and utility), the cost effectivs stakeholderFinally, this analysis presentsfrom room acslevels in 2020 from a Room AC market transformation program or policy implemented beginning in 2012,by using the earlier efficiency datd baseconomy from the ClASIand the EU Ecodesign study Thesee extrapolateding the model frotMcNeil et al

(2008) The sales forecast from Letschert(2009)for China The metric used toeport energy savingsds One Rosenfeld is equivalent to annual energy savings ofbout the energy generated by one medium-sized power plant

Summary of FindingsFive Economies Constitute a Large Share of the Room AC Market Among ThoseAmong theoom AC/Heat Pump sales are dominated by 5 economies(China, Indiahigh andgure E1 The markets in the United States and Canadlarge ducted AC systems, also sometimes referred to as Central ACs in the rest of the world rather thanprojected Room AC Sales in various countries (logarithmic scale) SourceBSRIA, and CLASP Mapping Report(Baillargeon, 2011)this report we focus on the SEAD participating gChina

as of apnl oilCommission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, MexAfrica, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States More information on SEAD is availablefromitswebsiteathttp://wwwsuperefficientorgl

Significant Potential for Efficiency Improvement ExistsThe average energy efficiency of unducted split-packaged (known in the USt) air conditACs/Heat Pumps which form the majority of global residentialthe United States varies fromJapan to an average2 69 in the UaE as shown in table e-1 below thee market has the most efficient air conditionersthat are commercially available, with a maximum EER of 667 W/W, and an average of 4 1

We reportfficiencies in table E-1 in EER terms even though the rest of the report uses ESEER, since the dtEven though the data presented in Table E-1 are illustrative and cannot be compared directlycountries due to lack of availability ofbe compared witlin each country studied Table E-1 clearly and unequivocally show that thert gap in efficiency terms between the best available split package AC in each economy and thmyIf the best available technology available globally is considered,en more evident that there is significant room for improvement in Rorently available on the market arble E-1 Average EERs of unducted split-packaged ACs in various ccin 2010-2011(illustrativeEER(W/W)Min Max Average322281Mexico31614322Source: Catalog searches, IEA 4E M&B 2010, Baillargeon, 2011This data should be treated as illita points Data shown in table Ea) samples obtained froada, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and the UAE, b) from the IEA 4E Mapping and BenchmarkinAnalysis for Australia c) from the CLASP Mapping Report for China, EU, India, Japan and the USA, andd) from the IEA 4E Mapping and Benchmarking Analysis for Korea (IEA 4E M&B 2010, Baillargeon,

Sary of Efficiency Improvement Optionsns to improve air conditioner efficiency exist, including"classic options"such as incheat exchanger size/efficiency, variable speed and efficientssors, efficient fans, and thermostaticnd electronic expansion devices In Table E-3 below, we summarize some of the more common options,and the corresponding energy savings (%)compared to the base case The range shown in Table E-2indicates the range of energy savings possible from a small incremental efficiency improvement(min),orTable E-2 Classic Efficiency Improvement Options and Corresponding Energy SavingsDEthigh efficiency microchannel heat exchanglarger286gh efficiencyEfficient Compressors18AC, AC/DC or DC inverter driveInverter/variablExpansionⅤalveThermostatic anI Crankcase heating Reduced crankcase heating power and duration9

8%Reduced standby loads2,2%It options shown in Table E-2 above are employed, then the highefficiency Room AC could save between 60-72% of energy compared to the base case model in theous economies studied, varying by usage and climate in the various economies studiedThe energy savings figures presented here are representative of conditions in Europemutually exclusive, i e improvement using one option reduces the baseline energyption to whicthe next efficiency improvement option is applied A

Efficiency Improvement to ESEERs between 42-744 W/W is Cost Effective Leadingf over 63 RosenfeldApplying the cfficicncy improvement opd earlierbase case model, and calculating thepresent the resulting cost versus efficiencyFigure E-2 bA Energy Consumption50

JyEER(W/W)Figure E-2 Cost to Consumer of Conserved Electricity(CCEc) Versus Room AC Efficiency forcapital (i c discount/interest rates)such as Brazil,higher efficiency ACs carry a larger cost of conserved electricity, wheIndia or uae fsuch as japan where Acng, and India or UAE, where ACused forhigh ESEERs are attainable at lowf electricitsaved Significant energy savings are cost effective in most of the economies studied, as further shownRosenfeld=3TWh/year, or approximately one 500MW (imedium power plana ting energy savings One9 In line with Koomey et al 2010,the unit of rosenfeld for d

2020 Energy 2020 Energy 2020 CO2Country hriff=CCEc(W/W)Australia010403Canada08260194115197300085579104309941424378610108,45MexicoRussi00542010

23346624Table E-3 ESEER and Energy Savings at Economic and Technical Potentialowing intormation:nsumer tariffs for the economies studiedte market average ESEER converted from the EEr values reportedor cost effective potentiESEER Le at efficiewhere cost of conserved electricity equals the tariffs inE: the total or technical potential in ESEER terms, ic the esEer possible by deployingthe best available technothe climate andF: the 2020 annual cnergy savings potential from Room AC efficiency improvement inRosenfelds (TWh/yr), assuming that the corresponding market transformation program gocorresponding to column D and transforms 100/ of the marketa standard corresponding to column Drgy savings potential from Roomimprovenentosenfelds (TWh

/yr), assuming that the corresponding marketn program goesto effect at the level corresponding to column E and transformne market ie thpotential available for a labeling or incentive specification corresponding tothat the corresponding market transformation program goes into effect at the levcorresponding to column E and transforms 100% of the market ie the potential available lo c

ContentsList of TablesAcronyms11 Super-Efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment Initiative (SEAD)Chapter 2 Engineering AnalysisWater-cooled SysOe Air Conder etticiency31 Classic Component Options Across all E232 Other OptionChapter 3 Room AC Market and Energy Consumption Trends1 Split Packaged ACs Are the Dominant Type of Residential Air ConditionA3

3 Significant Potential for Efficiency ImproExists34 Deployment of Variable Speed Compressors is IncreasingDeployerattainsRoom AC Sales in Emerging Economies are High and Growing RapidlyChapter 4 Cost Effectiveness AnalysisRoom AC Components and Design Optio4 2 Cost-Efficicncy Model Methodology43 Other Data Inputs6444Effectiveness anCost of Conserved Electricity

421 Cost of Conserved Electricity MethodologyUsing Cost of coty for Market Ttion Program DesignEffectiveness Analysis ResChapter 5 Energy Saving PotentiSavings Potential Methodology and Data Sourcesst Effective and Total Energy Savings PotentialChapter 6 Conclusion77Technical Data Can Be Used for Integrated Market Transformation Program DesignCost-effectiveness Metrics Could be ExpandedLow GWP/ODP Refrigerants Can Have a Cost and Efficiency ImpactAcknowledgmentsAppendix A: Climate Specific Efficiency Improvement OptionsEvaporative Cooling

Phase Change materialsFree Cooling for Window/Louvered Air ConditionersStorage of Cooling at NightAAppendix C: Rebound Effectd effectppendix D: SensAnalysis

List of figuresFigure E-1 Current andC Sales in various countries (logarithmic scale)SBSRIA andCLASP Mapping Report(Baillargeon, 2011)Figure E-2 Cost to Consd Electricity(CCEc) veAC Eftid market transFigure 2-1: Central air conditioner of the split typeleleFigure 2-4: Compression cycle in the reciprocatingFigure 2-5: Efficiency of fractional horsepower motorsFigure 2-6: Evolution of Motor CIFigure 2-7: COP (W/W) as a function of cooling capacity for an inverter driven ACFigure 2-8: Types of Different FaFigure 2-9: Evolution in Japaneditioner fan motor efficiencyFigure 2-10: Evolution of Axial/Propeller Fan Desig e Hi和2-11: Axial Fan Design for A/C Condenser under High Static P2-12: Latest Design of Cross Flow Fan Design2-13bo Fan with 3-D bladesFigure 2-14: Evold dimensions of 2

8 kW AC units in JaFigure 2-15: Fin PFFF2-16: Evolutieopper tube designs for indoor coils in Japanigure 2-17: Electronic Expansion Value Schematicigure 2-18: Vaheating capacity as a function of outdobased heExpander cycle, (b) Refrigerant ejector cycle, (c) vortex tube cycleFigure 2-20: Outdoor Piping modificaticrease frost condition performaneFigure 2-21: Freeze Prevention Pipe for Outdoor Unit Bottom PipeFigure 2-22: The modified cycle including liquid vapor heat exchanger schematicFigure 2-23: Relationship between cfficicncy and refrigerant charge per kW of cooling capacityFigure 3-2 Current(HFC) and possible future refrigerant alternatives Source: Author's Interpretation from RFigure 4-1 Cost Effectiveness AnalysiFigure4-2“ Cloud”of1728cost- SEERFigure 4-3 Example of Manufacturing Cost versus ESEER Curve for AustraliaFigure 4-5 Market Transformation Program Design ExampFigure 4-5 Cost(tof Conserved Electricity (cCec versus room ac efficiency for vaFigure 4-6 Cofacturer) of Conserved Electricity(CCEm) versus Room AC Efficiency for VaEconConserved hAnnual Energy Savings in 2020FiTypical direc

Figure A-2: Indirect-direct evaporative air-conditioning procFigure A-3: Air cycle for the desiccant cooling systemFigure A-4: (a) Physical DE Vap concept; (b) Illustration of DE Vap air conditioningFigure A-6: PCM storageted withconditioner unit and air/water heat exchangerFigure A-7: Diagrammatic Representation of an EcorFigure A-8: Schematic diagram of Combined A/C, water heater and energy storage systFigure B-1: Manufacturing Cost vs ESeER for australiaFigure B-2: Manufacturing Cost vs sEeR for brazFigure B-3: Manufacturing CSEEr for canadaFigure B-4: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for ChinaFigure B-5: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for the EUFigure B-6: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for IndiaFigure B-7: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for JapanFigure B-8: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for KFigure B-9: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for MexicoFigure B-10: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for RussiaFigure B-11: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for UAEFigure B-12: Manufacturing Cost vs ESEER for USAFigure D-1 Sensitivity of Cost of Conserved Electricity(CCE)to assumptionsFigure D-2 Sensitivity of Savings Potential to assumptions

List of tablesTable E-1 Average EERs of unducted split-packaged ACs in various economies in 2010-2011(illustrativeTable E-2 Classic Efficiency Improvement Options and Corresponding Energy SavingTable E-3 ESEER and Energy Savingsd Technical potentiaTable 2-1: Different types of split-packaged units(split) air conditionersable 2-2: Different types of split-packaged units(split)air conditioners continueditionsgh-the-wall package air conditionerable 2-5: Single duct air conditionerTable 2-6: Double duct air conditionTable 2-7: AHRI Directory of Certified Product Performance Classifications for Residential Central Air Corditioners and Heat PumpTable 2-8: Summary of Efficiency Improvement OptionsTable 3-1 Percentage share of split packaged ACs of Room AC market

Table 3-2 Average Cooling (or Heating) Capacities in Various EconomiesTable 3-3 Average EERs of unducted split-packaged ACs in various economies in 2010-2011(illustrative)50Table 3-4 Market share of inverter driven(or variable speed compressor) split packaged Acable 3-5 Market Share of reversible(or cooling and heat pump) split packaged ACsable 4-1: Base Case model performance CharacteristicTable 4-2: Energy Savings for Individual Design Options CompareBase case model used in the iTablc 4-3: Electricity Prices including Weighting(S per Kilowatt hourTable 5-1 Room AC Sales by countTable 5-2 ESEER and Energy Savings at Economic and Technical PotentialTable A-1: Summary of main outcomes from PCM Simulations ExperimentationTable C-1 Econometric Studies of Direct Rebound for Residential Space Cooling

Abbreviations and AcronymsAPFAnnual perfoASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning EngineersCACCCECost of Conserved ElectricityChlorofluorocarbonCoefficient of dischargeCoefficie(expressed in W/W(SI units)multiply the sI value3 to express it in Btu/h/W)-often but not always used to referDemand controlled ventilationEVApDesiccant-enhanced evaporative air conditioningDG-Tren Directorate General for Energy and TransportDG-ENTDirectorate General for Enterprise and IndustrEACEuropean CommissiEER) or Btu/h/w(Imperial unitsMultiply the SI valuc byEuropean Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio, expressed in W/W(SI units)ProductsFCOFederal Communications Commission (US)GWPGlobal Warming PotentialACHeating, Ventilating, and Air ConditioningHCEHvdrochlorof

HSPEHeating Seasonal PerforKilowatt(EU motors equivalent to HP)Long Run Marginal Cost of Electricity SupplyNational Renewable Energy Laboratory, Facility of the US

Department of EnergyOentialctorSEATefticient equipment and appliance deploymentSeasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio(expressed in W/W(SI units), or Btu/h/w(Imperialunits) Multiply the SI value by 3 413 to express it in Btu/h/wTotal Equivalent Warming ImpacUECUnited Statesapor compression air conditionerVA\Variable air volume airⅤRFVariable refrigerant Fle

Executive Summaryhe results of an analysis, commissioned by the US DConditioner(AC)efficiency in support of the Super-efficient Equip(SEAD)initiativetional Energy Studies group at Lawrence Berkeley Nationalelaboration with Navigantsulting Inc performed the analysis SEAD aims to transform theSmarket by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances

SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1)raise the efficiency ceiling by pulling superglances and cquipmenthe market throughbolster nationtional or regional policies like minimum efficiedards; and ( 3)strengthen the efficiency foundations"of programs bylting technical work to support theseunitesThe objective of this analysis is to provide the background technical information necessary to improvee efficiency of ACs and to provide a foundation for the activities of SEAD participating countriestly available technology offers large cfficicncy impro(5% to 50%o reduction in cncrgy consumption from the market average) in most SEAD countries Thecost effective cfficicncy improvements range from 20% to 30%o reduction in energy consumption basedd sal costs, as well as to provde 'dentify potential Room AC efficiency improtry-specific estimates of total energywings potential Theching goal is to provide relevahat will accelerate the penetratesuper-efficient Room AcThis report addresses two categories of AC efficiency improveffective and technicalThe efficiency improvements studied are those that are technically feasible, practical to manufacture, andcasible using components or technology that is already commercially available, and therefore could berealized in the short to medim The relationship between cost and efficiency improvemPotentiala consolidated fashion in teravings potentialused to estimate the technical and cost effective potential Basedthe information presented in the cost vbat different levels of electricity costs which vary across consuAnalysis Method and Data SourcThe analysis makes use of theeffieponent costs and efficiencyata developed under the Europeamission's Ecodesign program Lot 10 study This analysis has up-to-date cost and efficiency dataSEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC in January 2010As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France,Germany, India, Japan, KoreaRussia, South Afnca, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, andUnired states, More in formation on sead is available from irs website at