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Towards an Inclusive Future

Towards an inclusive futureEditing supported by the Office Federal de l'Education et de la scienceEUR:2256BN:92898002ter 200COST is supported by the EU RTD Framework ProgrammeBook design by Christopher SharvillePrinted by East Sussex Press

East Sussex Press is a Carbon Neutral company andprocessing chemicals were used Ninety-five per cent of the cleaning solverrther use and 88 per cent of the waste associated with this product

2 Current examples of existing products and services fo2 Current examples of existing products and services forpeople with disabilitiesThis chapter brings together a number of examples of good practice that have beeriCatioenvironmervices The main aim is to give a snapshot of current trends in services that areaccessible to people with disabilities and to discuss the possible impact on peoplewith physical, sensory or cognitive restrictions( that may be due to a disabilityageing opecial conditions or equipment they use) The emphasis is orikelybe on people with disabilitiesThis will also serve as a baseline of what is the current situation in comparison toThe chapter is structured into four main sections(apart from this introduction): 22New technologies to help people with disabilities and elderly people; 23 Newremote services; 2

4 Evolution of text telephony; and 25 User participation intechnology a summary of the contents is given belowSection 22 New technologies to help people withdisableTechnological advancement in the field of robotics has provided devices andfoule to deate both outdoors and indoors the section safescription otigation and discusses the possibmmunication betweeevertneiess aheir communication skills Currernology ISable to translate text- voice and voice-to-text (the latter still without enoughquality and reliability), enablof diverse mediation devices and

2 Current examples of existing products and services forpeople with disabilitiesservices These include, for instance, reading texts alorestriction, and controlling devices in a more natural way through the voice Theeople with disabilities" reviewsand more particie applications of speecllologies that can enhancee communication of elderly people and people with disabilitiesSection 23 New remote servicesoadband communicatioadvanced services to support people with disabilities and elderly peoplC arested in a number of countries The section entitled"Novel broadband -baseservices: new opportunities for people with disabilities" describes seven trials ofadvanced broadband-based support services, conducted by the National Post andoch telestartheity oft and future broadband telecomcations serviceovidingemotesupport that is tuned to the needs of specific groups of people with disabilitiesRelay services usually act as communication mediators between users, one ofwhom at least has a disability that prevents them from using standardommunication devices or services

These services are able to translate from sigi0-voice(and vice versa), from text-to-voice(and vice versal, etprovide other services such as the description of a received image to a blindperson Some pre-existent relay services may be enhanced, universalised and madeess expensive by means of the currently available advanced telecommunicationtechnologies The section entitled" Access to video relay services through theket Interpreter (3Gs developed bythe Swedish National Post and Telecom Agency: The iP access project, a videoelephony relay service based on IP and the pocket interpreter for mobile videocommunication, both for signing deaf peoplexisting in Sweden These experiences may beexamples of good practiceoptimise the design of the access torelay servicesThe rise of Short Message Services (SMS)tied to the expansion of mobiletelephony, is frequently associated in our minds to young people Short messagesare cheaper than voice calls and don't require that both interlocutoed Nevertheless sms can bethe population A remarkable application of SMS is shown in section"Ways of

2 Current examples of existing products and services foeople with disabilitiesbile teby people with dementia, revealing that elderly peoplecan take advantage of this technology for verbal, text orSMS technology is also usedation of an SMS-based emergencyonly deaf people, brct theniversal 1 12 emergency service sending emergency text messages After makingcontact the user receives an acknowledgement message and can be located forssistanceSection 2

4 Evolution of text telephonyext telephonyently the basic means of communication for many peoplewith disabilities, such as deaf people The technology supporting mobile telephonydoessers substitute mobile text telxt telephonyhecessary to establish basic design guidelines that guarantee the quality of theext telephony" section compiles criteria that include mobility, interoperability,continuity, accessibility from the internet, and availability of relay servicesDiversited mobile ipephony based on GPRS communications" explains the results obtained by aSection 25 User participation in technologyWith the attraction of a growing marketa greater likelihood that more abe marketing deythebe accessedby elderly people and/or people with disabilities Since these concepts can beterpreted in diverse ways, consumers may find that devices advertised as fullyaccessible, straightforward and easy to use, doeir needsvailability of functibecomes essential, so that products can be checked and certified in order to giveo the customer a guarantee of the appropriateness of a given product or service

Current examples of existing products and services forpeople with disabilitieselation to his or her needs

The section entitled"Functional specification forerminal procurement"presents an example of good practice from Sweden in what

22 New technologies to help people with disabilitiesd elderly peopl22 New technologies to help people with disabilitiesd eld221 Safe navigation with wireless technologyackgroundfind my way? Can I walk safely here?lost? Do I dare to try a new route? What if I suddenly faleed help? Theckto these andherable people to move around in outdoor as well as indoor environmentsAnd who is not vulnerable? Basically, all of us sometimes are in need for helpbecause we have lost our way or feel unsafe or have made a mistake in our wayding effort Among us, however, are people who feel more at risk than othersith various kinds of disabilities and among these

people withies and those who suffer from cognitive impairmestrong interest in finding solutions to overcome their problemsht hayststo find solutions to way-finding problems for these groups, both in termspersonal navigation aids and landmarksenvironment tarly on, the locane became a well known attribute to blind pedestrian s navigation, and laterefforts have been made to improve the cane by adding remoteare laser emitting diodes end sensors, magnetic field probes arost recentlyRFid detecting devices Other ideas have beeltechnique, i e the development of various kinds of ultra sonic devices to scan theThe common denominator for all these examplharacteristics of the solutions Alical facts, over the last few decades, navigation problems ofother groups have been acknowledged An example is the large group of peoplewith cognitive impairments, including eg those with dyslexia, mental disabilities,dementia and stroke, but also people with mobility problems, includRadio Frequency lde

22 New technologies to help people with disabilitiesS Ihe problems here arelearning in advance about obstacroad works and similar matters Even people who are deaf or hard-of-heaexperienced great problems in moving from their home to eg

a schooby publicofbeen givenimprovements have come about in society as much inforhas successivelyberic and not been of muchIffer from dementia, mental disabilities and other cognitive disordersA break through came about with the installathe aPositioning System-GPS, that has been used since the late 1980s for positioningpurpose, mainly as a tool for finding the way for car drivers and boat and aircraftbe discussed later, the gPS system per se does of course notsolve the problems displayed above, but it forms a basis for further developmentadols Tor all groupsPositioning, orientation, navigation, communicationd localizatioKnowiknown environment ashould also make it possible for users to orientatethemselves, ie to know in which direction they are standing in relation to, fothe points of theindependently, i e be able tofrom one given position to another, and also if necessary, raise an alarmIso be possible, for those whbe foundSatellite systeuse of radio signals transmitted from satellites orbiting the earth and with whoseassistance it is possible, with thepecial receivers, to get a position on the

22 New technologies to help people with disabilitiesd elderly peoplarth's surface inrm ot cos This kind of reference can beransformed into, for example, an inon an electronIc map obe linkedhandheld computer or the likeAt present there are two exisystems in use: the American GPS(Globaositioning System)and the Russian GLONASS(Global Navigation Systemlatter does not have any marketing in Europe and is currently being extensiveldated For many years, a system has been planned in Europe known by theworking name Galileo This system is designed to be well-adapted for Europeapresently at the development phaseand will not be fully accessible until 2008 at the earliestGPS is designed to provide the best possible coverage some hundred miles northd south of the equator

This means that the furtherand southe worse coverage one gets with GPS owing to the satellites all appearing to lien it simplest form, GPS provides a positioning accuracy of some tens of metersowever, there is an extensive system of terreations that can take care ofeceiveddividual gPs receiver This isknown as Differential GPS or DGPS With such support, it is possiblo an accuracy ot Just a Tew meters In principle, It Is posSiBle to agreater accura

cy in this way(to within centimetres)but, for various reasons, itot practically feasible for the navigation application in question One reasonvailablerestrialocessingeason is that it may takeacceptably longo processsomeseyeral seconds whicAnother possibility is Assisted GPS-AGPS -which can be used in situations wherehe signals from the satellites are too weak This may be appropriate indoors, bistances are whber of satellites can be reached or wiounded by high buildings or other similarshould beGPS receivers with much greatelbefore -- are now startihe marketmay allow navigation with sufficiently good precision even in environments thatare currently problematic from a radio perspective

owards an inclusive futureForewordrmation and communication technologies(ICives, in our work, education, use of public services and in our homes New possibilitiesemerge of products and services that are flexible, quick, adaptable to our preferences,Yet these same technological advances can presenters to some of the veryle able to benefit most from these services andadd to thate whether some groups, likepeople with disabilities, will be able to use them or notAbout 15% of Europeans report difficulties performing daily life activities due to someform of disability With the demographic change towards an ageing population, this figurewill significantly increase in the coming years

Older people are often confronted withmultiple minor disabilities which can prevent them from enjoying the benefits thaechnoation Societys estimated that only 10% of persons over 65 years of age use internet compared with65%ofaged between 16-24 This restricts their possibilities of buying chects,booking trips orinformation including socialolde paalth services Furthermore, accessibility barriers in products and devices preventspeople and people wily enjoying digitaldirect impacttypopulation Accessible technologies can play a key role in improving this situation, makinge difference for individuals with disabilities between being unemployed and enjoying fulbetween beiThe recent United Nations convention on the rights of people withclearly statests In thecreasinglyfficult to conceive of achieving rights of access to education, empwithout ensuring accessible technologyal tnat we create solutoabouthe needs of a small part of the pofact evidence saccess to theormation society tormore people in the general population, for example as it drives innovation towards easierse products and websitesast year, all Member States agreed on a declaration in Riga committing themselves toake concrete steps to build an Inclusive Information Society and setting clear targets

Towards an inclusive futureng years To achieve these objectivesa posstes, technology Isless it ultimately meets the needs of society This must be fully reflected in thethithe010ino building an information society for all

To ensure thateveryone has the opportunity to benefit from these imprs also essential to create a legal and economic environmensocio-economic obiectives can be achieved the various factors that can contribute to theskon are indeed often interrelated, like poverty, low level of educationunemployment, disabilityge These need to be addressed in aly sustainable Forot enough, cost 219 activitiproblems by promoting a Design for AlThis book addresses the accessibility of next generation ICand servicess context are: howaccessibility to newodal conversations How to ensure theof emergency numbers? Next generation networks offer immense opportunities forg for example displays would open up newopportunities in particular for deaf-blind personspe for addressing these issues, asking questions such as theboolbute to the debate and stimulaaccessible solutions in next generation networks I welcome this important contributionthe telecommunications field and to the construction of an Inclusive Information SocietyViviane RedingMember of the European CommissionI for Information Society and Media

Towards an inclusive futureContentsution of text telephony2,Cof41 Thervices foratonality for textdisabilit242 Mobile and IP-based text222 New technologies to helpeople with disabilities alelderly people2 4 3 Mobile text telephony based on 97221nology25 User participation02

3 New remote servicesnationaservices: new opportunities forpeople with disabilities3 Smart home environmentproduct10ional post and tele33 Smart home tech233 Convenient invocation of relay 65Ways of using mobileChallenges4dementia4 Ambi235based emergency servicswith disabilities41 Introduction5

owards an inclusive futureoften42 The ISTAG scenarios: a case584 Discussion of the results2947

5 Reference2988ew technologiee regulatory scenn at the crossroads 2068egislation and regulation a23484 Condble to249Glossary of acronyms used in 324kit 255book262st of authors and members of 326er intormationOpportunities and challenges 2762797 What obstacles prevpractical broadbaapplications being2873 Results285

Towards an inclusive futurentroductionoriginal COST 219 Acticconsiderable shift in attitude and awareness hasccurred towards including people with disabilities and older people in all aspeot societyof igisocietal and even to a certain extent atbsrtion of thenot to say that all issues have been resolved, far from it For example, oneofeds to be conveyedone ot ecommitment over the longer term However at least there is now a state ofgnition that thes have to be addressed andomplex issues are suitably handled with approe deed, with the well-publicisedategies and policies, thxciting potential rewards to be gainedation the issue of technology at the service of olderseen as an opportunity and an integral part of future strategies in tackling theproducts and services right from the beginning that can be used by the broader(Design for All appreThe purpose of this book is to give the readerpicture of theation with the latest trends in products and servicesbe used by asly people as possible including people with disabing 3G telephony had a high takeced affordablyOther examples presented in chapter 2 include showing how neyologies ca(section 2

31) Sorsues concerning relay services and text telephony are discussed in sections

owards an inclusive futuresection 222) This technology has been promising much for many years, and theeader will be able to assess the degree of maturity it has now reached whibeing able to appreciate the potential for uspeople withAnotherant elof ambien(Aml) The potential implicationstizens are immenseeader will get an insight into the exciting new possibat aml could offerpeople with disabilities and older people The approach used has been to take theSTAG (ST Adywould happen if people wile with disabilities were introduced into the scenariosay, it has been possible to carry out a detailed analysisnd possibilities of Aml for people with disabilities

This shouldpotential userses related to aml which are of course of partielevance to aadvantaged groups, are discussed in section 43willingness of governments, both at national and EU level, to introduce new lawsand/or regulation, backed up by standardisation, so as to ensteader will be able to gather a clear idea of the available choices within the reviewFramework Directives and the potential impact these decisions will havepeople with disabilities Theclearly at an importawith the next few years being crucial in determiection of requlation this chapter indicates how thef disadvantageusers can be protected within this Framework Directives review without hamperingAn additional key issue raised in chaptf certifieclaration certification, certification/accreditation of suppliers or third-partycertification schemes The various options and their implications are discusseite naturally to chapter 6 where an dbe found oftrendsand what types ofassessment are currently being carried out by test houses The reader will be ablto gather information about a mobile phone evaluation toolkit developed withinthe framework of COST 219ter(section 6 3)which is a simple methodology for

Towards an inclusive futureassessing the accessibility of a mobile phone The bewould be while testing/checking other protocols and design issues a case studyfrom Portugal of how evaluation may change the design is also given in section6,4Despite the growing awareness and increasing technological possibilities, offestill wideaccessible and usable products are not appearing on the marketderstand the reasons for this lack of products and services COST 219ter resolvedto employ the Interactive Management(IM)methodology with the triggeringquestion"Considering the availability of powerful broadband technoldevelopment of relevant scenarios, what are the obstacles that prevent us fromoadmap from of these two(IM)workshops are described in detWithoprocess yielded somenexpected results

For example, the roadmap on page 293 shows that sorfundamental issues, such the difficulty in turning a statement of user needs intoedder for there to be moreits some of the challenges thaeadadsociety including, users, disability organisations, regulatory authorities, legislators,tandardisation bodies, civil servants, governments and industry towards having tograpple with new issues and break new groundrning back now andby the end of this bookder should have a betteNote from the editorAlthough the Members of COST 219ter are well aware of the WHO"InternationalDisabithrough out the book is not wholly consistent This is partly for reasons of style bro partly reflects the various opinions and preferences of the authors, amongswhom no consensus was reached (and probably never will be)on what were theost acceptable terms to be used the editor decided to respect this variety oftaken by anyou

Towards an inclusive futured personally like to like to thank all the authors for their most valuableThis effort is much appreciated

I would particularo thank tha y workloadsead authorsof each chapter, without whom this book would never have beenadviceproce