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TSP Science Xpress Issue 2

CHIEF EDITORSujit Rumar RarEDITORSSandeep Rumar MohantySidharth MaharanaSworaj MohantyGRAPHICSDeepak Rumar NathSPECIAL THANKS TOAlexandra TaylorAnjan Rumar TripathyBudiman Cahyadi W

Elynne FoongGeorge papadopuloProf Paul MayPoh Ria JinDEDICATED TOAll Our EsteemedReaders Supporters OfTHE SCIENTIFIC PEOPLE”

背@QUWhat is the molecular weight of Water?(c)20(d)242 What is the vertical salinity gradient of water known as?a) Thermocline(c) EcoclineChemocline3 Which life supporting entity deals with water on the surface of the Earth?(a) Lithosphere(c)Magnetosphere()Hydrosphere4 Which of the following is a source of freshwater?(d)Pond5 What percentage of the Earths supply is freshwater?0) About 3%(c)About 30%(d) About 90%06

How many average classes of water should a person drink everyday?(a)2 glasses(b)4 glasses(c)8 glasses(d)20 glasses7 Which is the largest ocean in the world?a)Arctic Ocean(b)Pacific Ocean(c)Atlantic Ocean(d)Indian Ocean8 What are the organisms living in water known as?Terrestrial Organisms(b) Extraterrestrial Organis(c) Aerial Organisms ( d) Aquatic Organisms9 What are the huge chunks of ice that give rise to rivers known(a)Ice cap(b)Ice bed(c) glace(d) Avalanche0 The process of water changing from liquid to gaseous state upon the action of heat is known(a)Evaporation(b)Condensation(c)Sublimation(d) Coagulation11

TSP Scientist BiographiesJacques-Yves Cousteau(11June1910-25June1997)Jacques-Yves Cousteau, or Jacques Cousteau, as wekcommon name in the field ofOceanography He was a well known explorerconservationist, film maker, innovator, scientisthotographer, author and researcher who is knownfor his studies of the sea and marine life formshis known for all these achievements in severalfields, along with his innovation of modernunderwater diving His pioneering role in the fieldf development in Oceanography, and his rolepment ofAqua-lung has given birth totoday's open-circuit scuba technologyEarly lifeJacques-Yves Cousteau was born on llth of Ju1910,Saint-Andre-de-Cubzac Gironde in France: to Daniel and ElisabethCousteau Having completed his preparatory studies in College Stanislas ofParis, he entered the Ecole Navale in 1930, and graduated as a gunneryofficer

However, an unfortunate event of an automobile accident cut shortin naval aviation Later on, he indulged in his interest in the seaHe carried out his first underwater experiments in 1936, when he was inToulonAt a Later Stage…On 12th of July, 1937, Cousteau marriedSimone Melchoir, and had two sonsJean-Michel and Philippe However, his wifebreathed her last in 1990, after which Cousteaumarried Francine Triplet, and had a daughterDiane Cousteau and a son piCousteau Later on, in the early 1940s, hefforts led to the innovation of modern iNunderwater diving Even he was given thecharge to form the French UnderwateExploration Group Later on, he founded theFrench Oceanographic Campaigns(FOC),andaccomplished a lot, until the event of his saddemise on 25th of June, 1997, due to heartattack12

ContributionsO Co-development of Aqua-lung, which gave birth to open-circuit scubadivingInnovation of modern underwater divingo Set up the Underwater Research Group of France, Groupement deRecherches Sous-marines(grs)Took part in a rescue mission and rescued Professor Jacques PiccardsbathyscapeFounded French Oceanographic Campaigns(FoC)o Created Confederation Mondiale des activites SubaquatiquesO Filmed the aquatic worlds, and authored more than 45 booksAwards and honoursCousteau was conferred on the grand cross of the national order of meritCommander of the Legion of Honour, Cross of War, Officer of the Order ofMaritime Merit, Command of the Order of Arts and Letters, HonoraryCompanion of the Order of Australia, National Geographic Society's SpecialGold Medal and many more awards and honours He was alsconsultant for theand the world bank

Several authors have writtenbooks about him in his honor, and certain chronographs by the InternationalWatch Company have been named after himCousteau's submarine near Oceanographic Classic twin-hose Cousteau-typeMuseum in monacoaqualungThe sea, the great unifier, is man's only hope Now, as never beforethe old phrase has a literal meaning: We are all in thJacques-Yves Cousteau

學H管如A息LRattail fishAtlantic wolffish(Macrouridae sp)(Anarhichas lupus)Giant isopodBathynomus giganteus)Sea AnemoneVampire squid(Actiniaria)(Vampyroteuthis infernalis

學H管如A息LPacific ViperfishOcean Sunfish(Chauliodus macounD(Mola mola)Ling(Molva molva)HagfishFangtooth Fish(Myxinidae(Anoplogaster

TSP 26 WORDSAbyssal Plain The flattened floor of the deep ocean offshore from the continental margin回回回回Bamboo Shark A shark of the genus Chiloscyllium, which live in shallow waters around coralhave bamboo like markings when younCarrageenanAn edible substance extracted from red algae, used as a thickener in foodscosmetics and other productsDoliolidA deep-sea, pelagic tunicateEbbTo flow away At low tide water ebbs back into theFlukeThe flat tail flipper of a whale or other marine mammalGaribaldi a bright orange fish that lives in warm waters, including the kelp forests offHadalThe deep sea region with trenches, below 20, 000 feet (6, 100 meters)Ichthyology The scientific study of fishes

JellyAlso called jellyfish, a drifting sea animal with a soft central disk and longtentaclesKrilceansthat grow to two inches long Large populations ofkrill provide the main food for baleen whales and some kinds of fishesLingcodA long-bodied fish that lives in cold Pacific watersMesotech Sonar a device on a remotely operated vehicle thats similar to an echo-sounder andshows the bathymetry (hills and valleys)of the seafloor

TSP 26 WORDSNet PenA system in which fishes are enclosed in a net or cage, with a facility of waterand waste to pass freely into the surrounding environment回回回回回回An extremely air tolerant sea star that lives in the intertidal zone

They areOchre star found in a variety of shades from purple to orange and brown depending onits location and the water temperaturePelasRefers to fishes and animals that live in the open sea, away from the coast orseafloorQuintessential**Ultimate; the finest example of somethingRadulaA rough tongue or band of horny teeth used by snails and other molluscs toscrape algae or bore into shellsA type of small flatfish, caught for food along the california coastTide poola pool of water left along the shore as the tide level fallsUpwellingThe movement of cold, nutrient-rich water from the ocean depths up towardthe ocean surfaceAn aquatic animals daily or seasonal movement up toward the water'sVertical Migration surface and back down to deeper waterWolf-EelA long, eel-shaped fish with large teeth, most common in northern PacificXerothermic A postglacial interval of a warmer, drier climate Also known as xerothermalPeriodYellowfin Tuna One of the larger species of tuna, which has yellow markings on its fins andZooxanthella Tiny, colorful algae that live in the tissues of coralsw*- Not directly related to theme17

e%39From The Chief editors DeskGreetings to all the esteemed readers of our e-magazine, TSP SCIENCE XPRESS A month has passedand once again, we are back with another issue, the second issue of the e-magazine Upon the releasof the magazine, all the members of The Scientific People had a dream- scientific empowerment ofcommon man To some, it might sound absurd, and unreal, and for others it might seem easy and (CWe are in the Age of Science, and we are advancing pretty fast towards every goal that we are dreamingG of We have more than hundred thousands of scientists in different countries of the world working forthe development of a particular discipline, on a particular topic With well-set goals and undisturbettention as well as determination, our scientists perform meticulous studies on a partiand lay out something new for Us, almost every day Ranging from a discovery about the Universe toany agricultural tool, everything is important for Us

However, time is quite precious for US, human beings The knowledge of the value of time has provedto be a boon, as well as a bane for Us, occasionally There have been examples of us human beings notable to know what is happening around Us, and that has created problems for one or multiple person(s)Well, I am sure that a question must be arising in our minds How are facts related to Science, and whyare we focusing on that? Everything in this world is Science, and Science is everything! We humabeings emerged into the state we are in because of Science, and we have been able to survive becauseo of the same too What would have been the fate of mankind as of now if there would have been noell phones, or internet?To emphasize the importance of Science Technology in our daily life, we have started the venture ofTSP SCIENCE XPRESS and will continue spreading knowledge as we have been doing Knowledge is abirthright ofdividual, and we respect the law of nature Thus, we have been trying our best tomake the magazine full of information which can satiate the quest of all our readers, of all age grouWe have also introduced a few new things and changed the layouts of the publication, whiclinteresting for our esteemed readers I am hopeful that our esteemed readworth reading, interesting, and will pass on to others to help everyone in collecting some pebbleknowledgeHappy reading and all the best少9


Diving Deep Beneath the Blue WatersO

f all the planets in the seeminglyunending universe, our Earth is the only planetknown to be habitable Our planet is unique, ithas several elements and entities to supportlife, of several forms: that we classify fromunicellular to multicellular terrestrial to aeriaand so on Among the life-supporting entities inour planet,"Biosphere" is the most essentialpart

Biosphere, as we know, is the proportionalhorizon of Lithosphere, Hydrosphere andAtmosphere, combined together to supportlife Life on our Earth is intelligent, and occurs invarious forms, and we will know about aquaticanimals and plants in this issueAquatic organisms,as the term itself says, refers to the plantsanimals and any other organisms living inwater In this issue of TSP SCIENCE XPRESS, letsdive down the blue waters in the ocean andMseas, and find out the organisms that livebeneath the freshwaters and saline waters indifferent parts of the world

The term deep sea creatures refers to the organisms that live below the photizone of the ocean, especially in the abyssal or hadal zones These organisms haveto survive in extreme conditions, such as hundreds of bars of pressure acting onthem, lack of Oxygen, very little food, almost no sunlight and extremely lowtemperatures Even for fooding, they have to depend on the food floating downfrom above The abyssal or hadal zones, their habitats are in extremely deepregions of theocean, starting from a depth of some thousands of metres below therface The water htemperature of somewhere in between 3-10 degreesCelsius and has quite low levels of Oxygen

The pressure is always somewhere inbetween 20-1000 bars And they still surviveThis survival is because of adaptation, the abilityto adapt to conditions that are extreme, and not matching to that of one's ownsurroundingsearn about some of these organisms in detailsFrilled sharkOften termed as a"Living fossil", the Frilled Shark is one of the two existingspecies of Sharks in the family Chlamydoselachidae, and is found in patches in thedeep waters of the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans Having been caught in depthsof almost 1, 5000 metres, it is still known to be living in depths of 50-200 metres insome places It reaches a length of about 2 metres, having an Eel like body, and finsplaced far back It has long and extremely fexible jaws that enable it toswallow the prey whole, and the small needle like teeth make it almost impossiblefor the prey to escape Highly specialized to live in the deep sea, it has reduced andoorly calcified skeleton and an enormous liver filled with low density lipidswhich allow it to maintain its position in the water column without much effort

Glowing Sucker OctopusAs the name suggests, it is one of the very small number of octopuses having thebility to emit natural light from their bodies In other words, it has the ability toexhibit Bioluminescence These octopuses of the suborder Cirrina are one of therelatively less studied species of Octopuses, that come under the species ofStauroteuthis syrtensis The length of their mantle varies from about 5-10 cm andwidth is around 4 cm These eerily beautiful creatures have eight arms that areconnected by webbings that the octopuses use to swim The webbings give theorganism an umbrella like shape A total of about 60 adhesive suckers are found ineach of their arms These organisms are found in North Atlantic Ocean at extremedepths of 500-4,000 metres These organisms are known to emit light from about0 modified suckers known as photopores situated on the underside of each oftheir arms It is believed that the light is used by these animals for self-defenceThey mainly feed on planktons and crustaceans for their dietGiant Spider CrabThought to be the largest arthropods on Earth, these crabs of the speciesMacrocheira kaempferi spend their time foraging on the ocean floor at depths ofa bout a thousand feet

Some of them can even measure up to 3 8 metres from clawtip to claw tip These animals can weigh up to 19 kilograms each Males havelonger claws, whereas females have much shorter ones It is quite different fromthe other crabs in many ways The crabs are orange in colour, with white spotsalong the legs They are known to be quite gentle, in spite of their ferociousappearance These animals are mainly found off the Southern coasts of Honshu,ansland of Japan Adults can be found in depths ranging from 50 metres to 600metres They like to inhabit the vents and holes in the deeper parts of oceansThese organisms are omnivores, as they feed on both plants and animalsSometimes, they are also known to act as scavengers, feeding on dead animals

Giant SquidThe elusive and giant organism, Giant Squid, is a mollusk that lives in deep seasand reaches a length of up to 60 feet It is the largest known invertebrate in theWorld The mantle reaches a size of about 2 metres, however it may grow more incase of females, and might be less in case of males The length of the squido excluding the tentacles reaches almost 5 metres They are carnivores, and areknown to eat anything that they catch There have been several unofficial reportsof giant squids pulling boats, which pictures them as a very powerful predatorThey have a mantle, eight arms and two long tentacles, which are the longestknown in the cephalopod class They attain sexual maturity at the age of threeyears,and females are known to produce a large number of eggs They catch theirprey with the two tentacles and grip their prey with the sucker rings at the endsThey are widespread, and inhabit all the oceans on Earths surface, at depths ofaround 300-1000 metreChimaeraThese strange cartilaginous fishes use their long snout to scan over the sea foor forelectrical impulses of their prey They are commonly known as ghost sharksratfish or spookfish They are the oldest and most engimatic groups of fishes alivetoday

Based on their fossils record, they are one of the diverse and abundantgroup of fishes of a time Their closest relatives are sharks Chtemperate ocean floors, at depths of around 2, 500 metres However, some of themare found at depths of around 200 feet These order of fishes are known to haveoriginated about 420 million years ago There are 39 existing species Chimaerasare put in the class Chondrichthyes of the phylum Chordata They have elongatedsoft bodies with a bulky head and a single gill opening Some of the species areknown to grow tails In some of the species, the snout is modified into anelongated sensory organ They have a skeleton constructed of cartilage The maleshave retractable sexual appendages on their forehead and in front of their pelvicfir

Pelican eelHaving enormous mouths, even larger than their bodies, Pelican eels are one ofthe types of deep-sea fishes that are rarely seen by humans Their mouths areloosely hinged and can be opened to swallow much larger fishes than themselvesThey have a pouch like lower jaw which resembles that of a pelican, hence thename, These animals are the only known members of the genus Eurypharynx orthe family Eurypharyngidae They belong to the order Saccopharyngiformeswhich are closely related to eels Their stomach can stretch and expand toaccommodate larger meals, although they are known to eat small crustaceansThey are known to have small teeth, and use a whip like tail for movement Theend of the tail bears a complex organ with numerous tentacles, which glow pinkand give occasional red flashes These animals are known to grow about 1 metre inlength, and have been spotted in temperate and tropical areas of all oceans InNorth Atlantic, these organisms are known to be living in depths from 500 to3

000 metresThe Universe is a battle field, where living beings have to stand as warriors andstruggle for existence Similar is the case of these underwater organisms, whichhave been able to adapt themselves to these extreme conditions Hypoxicenvironment, ie the lack of Oxygen, as said, is a major challenge EvenPhotosynthesis cannot take place in these regions due to the lack of light, thussome of these organisms have been bestowed with the ability of chemosynthesisNature itself acts as a challenge, with effects such as gigantism that engulf some ofthe creatures in these regions Enemies are never far away, and they all need tosurvive -thus is bioluminescence, that acts as a boon for some of these creaturesEvery cloud has a silver lining, isnt it?However, these natural paintings on the canvasof nature have not been completely discovered, we human beings have been ableto explore a very less percentagehe whole seabed, and this article haspresented to you all, a select few of them Science is advancing, and thus we arehopefully we will be able to find out more of these beautiful organisms in times tocomel

Bristol Corner- Molecule of The monthAugust 2013-Bispenol AWriter: Mie Monti, School of Ramiro do maeztu, Madrid, SpainBisphenol A is a man-made molecule which was first prepared by Alexander DianinIt is an important industrial chemical, with the chemical formula C H,O, and an IUPACname of 4, 4'-(propane-2, 2'-diyddiphenolIt is synthesized by the condensation of Acetone with two equivalents of phenol, using astrong acid such as Hydrochloric Acid as catalystThis compound is used mainly in plastic industries, since BPA acts as an antioxidant inplcasticizersHowever, it has several ill effects on human health, such as influencing obesity, developmentof Cancer in body, and reduction of sperm count in men because of these ill effects, it hasbeen advised not to be taken by women of reproductive age, and has been banned in somecountries of the worldRead more about Bisphenol a athttp://wwwchmbrisac

uk/motm/bisphenola/bisphenol%2oapdfBristol University -Molecule of The Month pagehttp://wwwchmbrisacuk/motm/motmhtmAlexander Dianin10