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TSP Science Xpress Issue 3


SWORAI MOHANTYSPECIAL THANKS TOAlexandra TaylorElynne FoongAnjan Rumar TripathyGeorge PapadopoulosBudiman Cahyadi WProf Paul MayDeepak Rumar NathPoh Kia JinC The ScientiFic People, 2013 All rights reservedNo part of this publication may be reproduced and reused in any form, electronic or print, forcommercial purposes, without the prior written permission of the publisher, ieThe Scientific People However, the publisher encourages the esteemed readers to pass it onfor non-commercial uses, intended for gathering information or gaining knowledge

Bristol Corner- Molecule of The monthSeptember 2013: HFC-134aWriter: Simon Cotton, Birmingham University, UKFC-134a is a Hydrofluorocarbon(HFc) with a structure that looks like CFC Unlike CFC's(chlorofluorocarbons ), it does not contain any chlorinet is the most widely used HFC, because of its low toxicity It doesnt contain Chlorine thuscannot form Ozone depleting CI radicals However it is known to have a high globalwarming potential of 1430This chemical compound has been banned by the european Union for use in new vehicle airconditioners, since 1st of January, 2011It is volatile and chemically inert, and a quite useful solvent It has also been used by syntheticorganic chemists in the synthesis of a-fluoroenonesRead more about Bisphenol a athttp://wwwchmbrisac

uk/motm/hfc134/hfchhtmBristol University- Molecule of The Month pagehttp://wwwchmbrisacuk/motm/motmhtmTSP PhotospixSaRing talents ta a new heightIf you are interested in photography, this isa new home for you and your hobbyAmateur to professional- TSP Photoispixcalls up photographers across the globe toenroll themselves in our exposure programand show off their masterpieces tothousands of people across the globeVisitusathttp://thescientificpeoplewixcom/tspphotospixSAMSUNG

HOMO SAPIENS QUIZmarrow(d) Muscles2 Which of these will grow the entire life?(c) Backbone(d)Nose3 How many hairs does an aveIman head have?(a) About 50,000(b)About 100,000(c) About200000(d) About500,0004 Losing control over the hand after a brain injury is known as:(a)Universal syndrome(b) Inhuman syndrome(c) Alien hand syndrome (d) Wild syndrome5 Which organ in the human body has the highest weight of all?(b) Brain(c)Liver(d)Skin6

At what speed is blood pumped throughorta from the heart(a)About 13 miles per hour(b)About 3per(c)About 1 miles per hour (d) About 35 miles per hourAppendix is a vestigial organ in the modern human body It was considered to be a part of which body systemn our ancestors(a)Circulatory System(b) Nervous S(c)Excretory System(a) Digestive Systemh part of the human body doesn't receive blood supply from the heart?(c)Cornea9 Which of these means "entrance hall" in Latin?(a)Aorta(b)Atrium(c)Vena cava(a)Bicuspid valve0 Who invented Stethoscope(a) Rene laennec(b) Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit(c)Anders Celsius(d) Alexander Graham Bell12

TSP Scientist BiographiesSir John dalton(6 September 1766-27 July 1844)ir John Dalton was an English chemist,meteorologist and physicist He is best known forhis works in the field of development of modernAtomic theory, as well as for his research in thefield of meteorology He was one of the earliestweather forecasters, who used several homemadeinstruments to take weather observations Througthe instruments created by him, he was able tostudy humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressurefor hwork about colour blindness, which is occasionallyreferred to as Daltonism in his honorEarly LifeJohn Dalton was born on 6th of September, 1766, in Eaglesfield, nearCockermouth, Cumberland in England i to a Quaker family His father was aweaver, and thus he joined his elder brother Jonathan in a Quaker school athe age of 15

In 1973, he moved to Manchester, and later on he became ateacher in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy His early life was infuencedby a Quaker from Eaglesfield, namely Elihu robinson, who got him interestedin the fields of Mathematics and Meteorology He started to maintainmeteorological diary in which he recorded about 200,000 observations inthe succeedingearsAt a Later Stage…After getting influenced by Elihu Robinson,Dalton started maintaining the weatherrecords, which are being referred to as theoldest weather records as of now, hprimitive, however, theycould measure temperature, pressure, humidity gtsand wind His interest in weather led him to be bamore interested in the study of gases, leadingto the formulation of Daltons gas law He alsrediscovered George Hadley's theory ofatmospheric circulation which is also known asHadley's cell In 1794, he also recognized thatColor blindness is hereditary

Contributionso Recorded about 200000 weather observationO Formulated dalton's gas lawO Formulated Atomic Theoryo Recognized that color blindness is hereditaryo Rediscovered George Hadley's Theory of Atmospheric Ciruclation0 Published Meteorological Observations and EssaysAwards and honoursDalton led his life as a Quaker, and never married His mortal remains werelaid to rest in the Manchester Ardwick Cemetery About 40,000 people filedby his coffin in the Manchester Town Hall

a bust of Dalton was placed inthe entrance hall in the Royal Manchester Institution In honor of his workmany chemists and biochemists use the term Dalton to denote one atomicmass unit The Dalton township in Ontario has also been named after him Alunar crater has been named after him In his honor, colour blindness issometimes referred to as daltonismBust of dalton by ChantreyDalton Hall inManchester UniversitWhy does not water admit its bulk of every kind of gas alike? This questionI have duly considered, and though I am not able to satisfy myselfcompletely l am nearly persuaded that the circumstance depends on theweight and number of the ultimate particles of the several gasesJohn Dalton (Paper on absorption of gases)

雅o了日急記vA WIND PROFILER is a type of weatheA tRaNSmiSSoMeTeR is an instrument forobserving equipment that detects themeasuring the extinction coefficientwind speed and direction at varioUsof theosphere, and for theelevations above the grounddetermination of visual rangeA PYRANOMETER is a type of actinometersed to measure the solar radiationflux density (in watts per metresquare)from a field of view of 180門A THERMO- HYGROGRAPH is a chartSODAR (SOnic Detection Andrecorder that measures and recordsRanging), is a meteorologicalboth temperature and humiditynstrument used to measure the(or dew point)scattering of sound waves byatmospheric turbulence

爵o了o遺急急虐育vr is a device that uses as a unit for use in thingslaser or other light source tosuch as weather balloons to measuredetermine the height of a cloud base

atmospheric parametersA DIis an instrument used tomeasure the drop size distributionand velocity of falling hydrometeorsNEPHOSCOPE is an instrumentR is a stationary orfor measuring the altitude, directionportable instrument for measuringand velocity of cloudsconcentration of suspendedparticulates in a liquid or gas colloid16

TsP26W○RDSThe horizontal transport of air, moisture, vorticity or other atmosphericAdvectionproperties; commonly used in describing the transport of moisture andBeaufort Scale A scale that indicates the wind speed using the effect wind has on certainfamiliar objectsChinook A strong downslope wind that causes the air to warm rapidly asa result ofcompressive heating; called a Foehn wind in EuropeDoppler Radar Radar that determines the intensity of rainfall and velocities of water and airparticlesA great warming of the equatorial waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean; El NinoEI Ninoevents occur every three to seven years and are related to shifts in globalweather patternsFathomThe common unit used to measure depth in the ocean; it is equivalent ot sixA marine weather warning for winds of thirty-four to forty-seven knotsGale Warning(thirty-nine to fifty-four miles per hour)A hot, dry, and dusty northeasterly or easterly wind that occurs in West AfricaHarmattan north of the equator and is caused by the outflow of air from subtropical highpressure areasIridescence Brilliant patches of green or pink sometimes seen near the edges of high-or◆A zone of strong winds concentrated in a narrow band in the upperJet Stream atmosphere; these winds are often referred to as the storm track since the jetospheric storms

KnotThe unit used to measure wind speed, equal to 1 15 statute miles per hourA coastal breeze that blows from land out to sea, and is the result ofLand Breeze temperature differences when the sea is warmer then the adjacent landMacroburst A large downburst within a 2 5 mile or larger outflow diameter and damagingg17

From The Chief Editors DeskIt gives me immense pleasure to bring to you all the third issue ofthe first volume of our e-magazine TSP SCIENCE XPRESS Onceagain, a month has passed, and we are back Last time we haddiscussed about the importance of Scientific empowerment formankind, on an individual as well as global levelWe are advancinpretty fast, utilizing the positive as well as negative vibesemitted by the

source we know as Science Although the light ofknowledge is lighting up every dark corner of the universe, stilla quite few corners remain under the control of the devil ofdarkness and ignoranceThe only response to these ignorant criesfrom the several corners of the Universe is Science, and onlyScience Scientific empowerment of common man through the tools ofeducation should be a great start

It is because we have been engulfed byScience from all aspects of our lifeThat is the reason we have been trying to changeking the worlda ng the society using the tools of Scientific education,making the world aware of the scientific advancements done by us, HomoWe rely on a three point programme, ieDiscover, the factsDevour them, or get devoured by them, either works while tryingDisperse, and help others to learnAnd thus is our venture, TSP SCIENCE XPRESS This issue hasseveral facts and articles about Meteorology, including fun andquizzes as well as a Kids corner We have tried our best to give ouraders a great reading experience, and we hope they find the sameHappy reading and all the best(SUJIT KUMAR KAR)


Tsunami a Fury of the nature4444-1945, World War lU Tests for a programme code named Project Sealwas being experimented off the coasts of Auckland The programme hadan intensity to cause destruction of as much as an atom bomb 3,700tests were conducted, and certain conclusions came into the picture33 UTC Quakes rocked Indian Ocean, killedabout 230,000 people from about 14 countries, With a magnitude of91-9

3, it was the third most powerful earthquake ever recorded by aseismograph This earthquake caused the entire planet to vibrate to asmuch as 1 cm46 bours, Japan Standard Time Waves of highntensity started to hit the coastal areas and almost destroyed some ofthe vulnerable islands of thundersearthquake of magnitude 90 with an epicenter of about 70 kilometres hadoriginated near the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku This earthquake,reportedly the fifth most powerful earthquake in the world created havocand destroyed about a million buildings, and took thousands of livesAll these happenings had one word commonin them, a word that scares billions of people in the world, and reflectsthe fury of nature on mankind What is Tsunami? Why is it so furious?know more in the following pages

Tsunami- The killer wavesTsunami is a Japanese word, composed of two words, "tsu"meaning harbour andnami"meaning wave, meaning harbour waves These are a series of water wavesdisplacement of a large volume of water These waves do notesemble normal tidal waves since their wavelengths are much longer than normalsea waves

These waves initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and thus are knownas tidal waves These consist of a series of waves with periods ranging fromminutes to hours, called a wave train Their impact is limited to coastal areas,however the waves can wipe out the entire ocean basins, and thus have quiteenormous destructive powerCharacteristicsThese killer waves are caused due to several reasons, however they cause damageby two mechanisms, such asThe smashing force of a wall of water travelling at an enormous speed, andThe destructive power of a large volume of water that drains off the land, andcarries away a lot of debris with itTsunami waves have a wavelength of up to 200 kilometres and travel at a speed ofabout 800 kilometres per hour However, the large wavelengths make the cycle ofoscillations to complete in 20-30 minutes, with a wave amplitude of about 1 metreThis phenomenon makes the detection of tsunamis quite difficult

MechanismWhen tsunami approaches the shallow seashore, the waves are compressed byphenomenon known as wave shoaling; resulting in the decrease of the wavelengthup to about 20 kilometres However, the amplitude ie height of the waveincreases enormously When the tsunami waves reach the shore, it is usuallyO succeeded by a temporary rise in the sea level, which is known as a Run up

ThisRun up is measured in terms of its height above a reference sea level A largetsunami is known to feature multiple waves arriving over a period of some hours,with significant time variations between wave crests Also, the first wave oftsunami to hit the coastline doesnt necessarily have the highest Run uplner● se in amplitude of the wave as酡 appro覆 ches the sh。w8●8h。r。GenerationTsunami, known as"tidal waves"in laymans language, has actually nothing to dowith tides The principal generation mechanism is attributed to the displacementof a huge volume of water in the sea The displknown to be caused bearthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings, even sometimes bmeteorite impacts and nuclear testsSeismic Activity/EarthquakesSudden deformation of the sea floor is one BETWEEN EARTHQUAKES UPLIFT Rn550E 53/EaRR pAimof the seismic activities that results in theHORTENINGE--displacement of water from its equilibriumposition Tectonic earthquakes that occurbeneath the sea are known to deform theTSUNAMIcrust, thus displacing the water Movementof normal faults are also known to cause the DURING EARTHQUAKESdisplacement of water in the sea, whereas itis quite unlikely for such events to bereason behind a tsunami7

anilidesIt has been discovered that landslides can beone of the reasons behind a tsunami They areknown to displace huge volumes of water overa short time period One such event had led tothe highest wave recorded, with a height of 524These waves hmegatsunamI by scientistsMeteotsumamisCertain meteorological conditions such as deedepressions that cause tropical cyclones canconditions knownmeteotsunamis, This phenomenon can causetides to rise several metres above the normalsea level

These are also known to causedevastation in huge landmassesApart from these, some of the above stated conditions such as meteorite impacts or highyield nuclear tests might disturb the equilibrium and cause tsunamisDown the memory laneThe first dibout tsunamishad started by 426 BC, when the Greek historianThucydides wrote about the causes behind thisnatural disaster Everalso known thatAlexandria, the city of modern Egypt was oncedevastated by Tsunami in 365 AD Japan is thecountry in the world that has the longest history oftsunamis, however the Indian Ocean Earthquakeand tsunami of 2004 has been known to be themost devastating of its kind in the modern timesTwo of the major tsunamis in the recenthistory of Mthe world are given in the next pageLisbon earthquake tsunamiin1755

2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami aStatistics● Time of occurrence00:58:53UTC26122004EpicentreOff the coast ofSumatra IndonesiaMtude9

1-93Depth30 KilometresDeath toll230,000+human lives2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami aStatisticsTime of occurrence05:46:UTC,EpicentreO kms east of oshikaPeninsula of tohokuMagnitudeDepth30 KilometresDeath toll15000+uman lIvesWiped out entireDevastation causedmillionFukushimaThe Dark Side- Project SealThere have been studies, and an attempt to create tsunami and use it as a weaponIt was the time of World War Il, when it was attempted to create tsunami bombby United States and New Zealand in a project codenamed Project Seal However,this project was never carried out on a full scale, rather with about 3, 700 smalltest explosions over a seven month time period However, the test revealed that aline of about 2,000,000 kilograms of explosives about 8 kilometres off the coasthad the caliber to create a destructive wave

Prevention is better than cureThere is a well known proverb, Prevention is better than cure Although gettingformation about Tsunami before it hits the shore can be a challenge, certaincountries have detection systems installed Warnings and knowledge about asome lives f they v Drawbacks, when observed can act as a sign, and help saveTsunami can be of heltsunami is not easy, however certain automated systems such as bottom pressuresensors,attached to buoys which monitor the pressure of the overlying watercolumn give information about these killer waves

Regions with high Tsunami riskuse warning systems to warn people before waves reach land Several signs inseveral tsunami prone countries indicate warnings and excavation routesDifferent monitoring and warning systems have been set up to monitor seismicactivityEven, certain earthquake prone countries have taken measures dealing withearthquake engineering, to reduce the damage caused onshore In Japan, wallswith height of up to 12 metres have been erected to protect coastal areasHowever, these walls have been a ble to tone down the effects by a small fractionEffective or not, Prevention has always been better than cure Tsunami is a majorsaster and hopefully mankind will find out a countermeasure to prevent the illeffects of it!EVACUATIOIROUTEA seawall at Tsu, JapanTsunami Evacuation Route SymbolKanyakumari, India10