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Development of Sustainable Energy Research and Applications

Clean Energy Systems and Experiencesystems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhousnetheufficientply allforeseeable needs, Conservation ofbe practised by most countries, to reduce oil imports and redress balance of paymentsdof theand water energy alternatives must be set in haf the fossil fueessential component of development In theires mechanisms to enable the rapid increase incapita, and in thenotershould be working towards a way of life, which makes use of energyficiencyout the impairment of the environment or of causing safety problemsshould as faenergyLarge-scale, conventional, power plant such as hydropower, has an important part to playomplementarythe greater use of small-scale, rural based, power plant

Such plantbe used todevelopment since it can be made locally using local rebling a rapid built-up in total equipment to be made without a corresponding andtral fufor providing theh equipment andalsble with the longnedlar collectors(Figure 1)to proviible some space heating for hoticularlyseful when the buildings are well insulated and thermal capacity sufficient for the carryer of energy from day to night is arranSolaransparent shelter scrCooltankAbsorberBuildinrtFig 1 Solar heater for hot waterntechopen

Development of sustainable energy research and applicationWave energy reDevicesPump loadinggenerationHydraulic systemTurbo-generaManufacturedary fuelsH2ubstationdStorageashore- electricalElectrical gridstand by plantary fuelsElectricity consFig 4

Poexploiting wave power, each element represents an essential linkthe chain from sea waves to constntechopen

Clean Energy Systems and ExperiencesThe debate over an international climate change regime has thus farthe controof climate change, the developing countries so far have assumed fewthere is a distinction between cost effectiveness(where in the world should the control beundertaken in order to minimise the global costs of control) and equity (who should beard abatement resulting from climate change) that hasI or anthropogenic climate change will require complex cooperative efforts amongrge number of individual nations This cooperative effortthorough understanding of how the various participating nations contof global climate change, and how that process affects them One of the fundamentalthe use of naturalway of imposing responsibility for environmentalthe party causing thedamage

In the context ofvironmental taxes, it is the polluter who pays, which is one reason why taxes are astable as an instrument for environmental policyChemicalcaH,co》CH O:+EoC-40=CHcFig 5 Schematicplay a significant role in energy supply in all developingurces should be divided into residues or dedicated resourcescluding firewood and charcoal can also be produced from forest residues O:ists of three oxygen atoms held togethebonding of theoms to each other The effects of the chlorofluorocarbonntury This reaction is shIt is a commonfrom the coolingfridges act as sinks of CFCs-the gases having been used as blowing agents to expand thntechopen

Development of sustainable energy research and applicationfoam during fridge manufacture Although the use of ozone depletingadopt to dealth the disposal problem they still present each yohis wastedegraded and takesalabwood is a good source ofd is an alternative to energy crops Agricultural wastesailabld can be converted to energy and useful chemicalsnumber of microorganisms The stf promoting any technology depends on carefulaining and monitoring Main featurestion projectNetworking and institutional development/strengthenerPromotion and extensionConstruction of demonstration projectsResearch and development; and training and monitoringCombined heater(CHP) installation in greenhouhichgrow high-energy, input crops (e

g, salad vegetables, pot plants, etc ) Scientificb Sumptions for a short-term energy strategy suggest that the most economically efficientnd the conversion of gas-fired CHP plants to biomass would significantlyreduce the dependa lack of generatinforecasted in thg-term, utilisation of the existing renewable energy potential and thehuge possibilities for increasing energy efficiency are sufficient to meet future energymands in the short-termtotal shift towards a sustainergy system is a complex and long process, but is onethat can be achieved within a period of about 20 years, Implementation willg-term national strategies and action plans Hnumber of benefits including: a more stable energy supply than at preseronmental performance of the energy sector, anbenefits, A vision used a methodology and calculations based onuterency Impfor futuregrowthInformation from studies andtuation in the energy sectorgy efficiency (EA, 2007)ntechopen

Clean Energy Systems and ExperiencesAgricultureForestryand woodharvestingprocesschainfill

BiogasresiduesP5, cropagroforestresiduesPlinked withcultur, 5 fromproductionand cooking fuelschemicals andused on sitecharcoaltransportBuildings industryIndustryEnergy supplyTrces is converted into a range of products for useby transport, industry and building sectorsntechopen

Development of sustainable energy research and applicationCFC brokenChlorinecatalyses ObreakdownBreakdownygenand chlorinentechopen

Clean Energy Systems and ExperiencesThe environmental Non Governmental Organisations(NGOs) are urging the government todevelopment of the energy sector byDiversifying of primary energy sources to increase the contribution ofbleImplementing measures for energy efficiency increase at the demand side and inSupply and demand balance and market fundamentals,pipeline availability anddeliverability, storage inventory, new supply sources, prices of other energy alternativesClassic management approaches to risk are well documented and used in many industriesThis includes the following four broad approaches to riskAvoidance includes not performing an activity that could carry risk Avoidancemayer to all risks, but avoiding risks also means losing outMitigation/reduction involves methods that reduce the severity of pepting thers Riskiable strategy for small risks

All risks thatetained by defaulusing another party to accept the risk, typically by contract2Fig, 8 Global CHP trends from 1992-2003to the atmosphere Globally, landfills are the thirdccounting for about 13% of methaneof carbode equivalent(MMTCO2e)(Brain, and Mark, 2007)as shownntechopen

Development of sustainable energy research and application40%30%USAEU=250%Fig 9

Distribuf industrial CHP capacity in the EU and USA26%3UkrainSouth africaoland日 NigeriaJ OthersColombialandfill methane emissions(MMTCOze)ntechopen

Development of sustainable energy research and applicationn compiling energy consumption data one can categorise usage according to a number ofTraditional sector-industrial, transportation, etcEnd-use-space heating, process steam, etcFinal demand- total enerrelated tomobiles, to food etcnergyoil, coal, etcnergy form at point of use-electric drive, low temperature heat, etcRenewable energyable energye particularly suited for the provision of rural poweravantmachines, etc can be constructed using local resources and without thetal cost ofore conventional equipment

Further advantage results from theGlobally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energyconsumption Most of thisting, heating, coolinf thect of Co and NOx CFCsrest in environmentally friendly cooling,Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, goagreed to phase outfrigerants that have the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone It wasirable to reduce energy consumption and decrease the rate of deplworld energy reserves and pollution of the environmentDry cellsDry cell batteriesLightingnimal powerfor farmFood preparation(threshinguscle=preparation for farmingation(threshingTable 1 Sources of energyntechopen

Clean Energy Systems and Experiencesmercial fuels wood, crop residues and animal dung are used in largereas of developing countries, principally for heating and cooking: thenefficient Table 2 presented some renewable applicationsRain collection, purification, storage and recyclingWastes disposalnaerobic digestion( CHa)ultivate the 1 hectare plot and greenhouse for four peopleI demandsWinddar collectorsrgyUltimately hardwareon of subsystems to cut costsTable 3 lists the most importantneedsConsiderations when selecting power plant include the followingCost-initial cost, total running cost including fuel, maintenarisedlifemaintenance and availability of sparesSuitability for local manufactureTable 4 listed methods of energy conversiond boatgricultural machinery eg

, two-wheeled tractormillinElectricity generation e g, hospitals and schoolsr supply e g, rain collBuilding fabric e g, integration of subsystems to cut costsCHTable 3ds in ruralntechopen

Development of sustainable energy research and application4Muscle porMan, animalsInternal combustion enginesPeDiesel-compression ignitionGas turbineHeat enginespour( RankinetInerling(Reciprocating)eam turbihermio

nic thermoelectricnoto devicesbuckets, turbinesVertical axis, horizontal axisDynamoTable 4 Methods ofThe human wastes(fede about 280 kWhaddition of vegetable wastes from 0 2 ha or wastes from 1 ha growing a1500 kWh/a may be obtained by anaerobic digestion The sludge fromreturned to the land in hotter climates

this efficient could be used to setproductive cycle( Figure 2)There is a need for greater attention to be devoted to this field in the developmedesigns, the dissemination of information and the encouragement of its usend government bodies and independent organisations all have a role to play inSociety and industry in Europe and elsewhere are increasingly deperof electricity supplyUnion(EU), the average rate of growth of electricity demand has bee2030greatly from transmission networks, mainlyructure (radial against meshed) and consequent planning and operation philosophiesRobinson, 2007nergy useEnergy use is one of several essential components for developing countriesThe overall situation and the implications of increased energy use in the futureThe problem of the provision of power in rural areas, including the considerationand energy conversionn addition to the drain on resosuch an incards of pollution and thge nuclear fission programmes This is a disturbing prospect It would be equallyntechopen

Clean Energy Systems and Experienceseptable to suggest that the difference in energy between the developed andd prudent for the developed countries towhilst maintaining or even increasing quality of life, reduce significantly the energybe achieved in a number ofImproved efficiency of energy use, for example better thermal insulation, energyand total enthe sholife forin the field of transporthergy ratio is defined as thereview of the potential range of recyclables is presented in Table 5Currently the non-commercial fuels wood, crop residues and animal dungmounts in the ruralprincipallyrrently of great imthe developinges, Geothermal and till have local significance whereNucre included for completeness, binot likely to make anffective contribution in the rural arDigesteUltra-violet pondHumansAlgae fish and duck pondFig 2

Bfor gases generated from the decoganic material Asthe material breaks down, methane(CH4) is produced as shown in Figure 3 Sources thatntechopen

Development of sustainable energy research and applicationgenerate biogas are numerous and varied These include landfill sites, wastewater treatmentdecaying waste To date, the waste industry has focused on controlling these emissions tour environment andturbines, thus generating electricity The primary components of landfill gasnethane(CH4), carbon dioxide(CO2), and nitrogen(N2)Theentration of methane45%,CO2is-36%8%(Omer, and Yemen, 2001)

Other comf a widn-wIn-wIntuation emissionsrly damaging pollutantoided, electricity is generatedfrom a free fuel and heat is available for use locallConstriction andecycling technolory optioRecycling productelongated drumCorcretent replacemenfelt:euse directly, grind to powdercycled window unit; glass fibre; fillingpolishing, crush into aggregate, burnaterial; ne, paving block, asphalt:to ashcycled aggregate: cement replacementCrush into aggregate, beat to 900"C to Thermal insulating concrete; traditionaloa-ferrous metal meltRecycled metalpePurificationPlasticPanel: recycled plastic; plastic lumber:Reuse directly: cut into aggregateIficamoa or pyrolysis: ch-ppongd-based panel; plastic lumberTable 5 Summary of material recycling practices in construction sectorIn the past two decades the world has become increasingare of thethe indications of climatic changes based on carbonurces, efficient energy prederide enof fossiland threduction of energy consumption are the main goals to reach a sustainable energy suppRenewable energy sources include water and wind power, solar and geothermal energy, asntechopen

Clean Energy Systems and Experienceswell as energy from biomass The technical achievability and the actual usage of thesey of them An efficient method for theion of biomass to energy, is theygen (anaerobic digestion) It is now possible to produce biogas at rural installatiupgrade it to bio-methane, feed it into the gas grid, use it in a heat demand-controlled CHtly methane (50-65% brsediments, etcdue to its high methane concentraaluable fuel wetnic materials with lownerally suitable foranaerobic digestion

The imporatance and role of biogases in energy production is growingNowadays, a lot of countries in Europe promote utilisation of renewable energies byaranteed refund pon trading systemsHydrolytic bacteriaOrganic acidsHomo AcetogenicH CO, formateAcetateBacteriaMethanogenic bacteriaCHs COzFig 3 Bntechopen

Development of sustainable energy research and applicationWave power conversion devicesThe patent literature is full of devices for extracting energy frome,, floats, ramppsdriven from air trfalling water in the chamber of a bucaround the world (Swift-Hook, et al, 2007)bility that has been selected Figure 4 shows the many other aspectshat willpower programme would makemitigantntribution to energy resources within a relatively short time and with existing technologyrecently Theremileavailable round British coasts It could make a useful contribution people needs, about twicehat of the UK genestem is available provided Althets ofpower are available in the waves, it is important to considerbeextracted A few years ago only a few percent efficiency had been achieved Recentltorage will be essential on a second-to-second and minute-to-minute basis to smooth thefluctuations of individuald wave's packets but storage frorthe nexttainly not be economic This is why provision must be made for adequate standbcapacitydevelopment alternatives

This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems inthe stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleanernergy use andvironmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhffectSe, bal warming) are comprehensively discussed in this paper Throughout the themeexamined from both current and future perspectives Itoncluded thatonmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implementednonstrated by full-scale plan especially forGlobally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energyed interest in envittechnologies Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed to phase out chemicalspotential to destroy stratosconsidered desirable to reduce energy consumption and decrease the rate of depletion ofenergy reserves and pollution of theeducing buildinggn buildings, which are more economical in their use ofnergy for heating, lighting, cooling, ventilaparticularly natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air-conditioning,dramaticallydependency on fossil fuels Therefore, promoting innovativeableat local and global levels This will also contribute to the amelioration ofby replacing conventional fuels withproduce no air pollution or greenhouse gases The provision of good indoor envirquality while achieving energy and cost efficient operation of the heating, ventilating andntechopen

Clean Energy Systems and Experiencesair-conditioning (HVAC) plants in buildings represents a multi variant problem Theparameters includingair speed, temperature, relative humidity and quality in addition to lighting and noise Therall obiective isa high level of building performance(BP), whicdefined as indoor environmental quality (EQ), energy efficiency (EE) and cost efficiefuels were defined as methanol, ethanol, natural gas, propane, hydrogen, coalerived liquids, biological material and electricity The fuel pathele5 Theand its exploitation for energy purposes can contribute to alleviatehe dependence on import of energy products, the production of food surpluses, theected urbanisation Biat thealalso indirect costs and giving a value to the aforementioned advantages,authorities at national and international levuse bcentives of different nature, In order to address the problem of inefficiency, researchuseful form, namely solid briquettes and fuel gas(Figure 6)Reduction of dependence on import of energy and related producReduction of environmental impact of energy production (greenhouse effect, airSubstitution of food crops and reduction of foodd of relatedburdens, and utilisation of marginal lands and of set aside landsReduction of related socio-economic and environmental problems(soil erosion,banisation, landscape deterioration, etc

d productionknowledge need to be addressed for actions to be effective and sustainableGaps include: species diversity, microorganisms and their ecological roles, ecological andgeographical status of species, human capacity to access and fdegradation Requirements for global inventories call for worldwide collaboration Criteriang priorities need to be formulated and agreed Globcollaborative international effort, perhaps under the aegis of the Convention on BiologicalDiversity The recently formulated global taxona step in the rightntechopen