Home > Article > Top 10 FAQ About Electric Cars

Top 10 FAQ About Electric Cars

oGreen &EnergyO Green Energy GmbHto //green-and-eersionThis work is protected by copyriglse of the book is exclusively for private and personaluse All of the rights, as well as the translation, reprinting and reproduction of the book in itsentirety or in part are reserved Reproduction in any form is prohibited(photocopy, microfilmor any other method) of any part of the work without authorization from its authors, nor is itto be used for teaching purposes(with the exception of paragraphs 53 and 54e German Law of Corporate Reorganization)

Similarly, nor can the text be changedged using ele recording of the work in electronicatabases and digital media playback In addition, the graphics of the work and treatment andstructuring of the contents are also protected by copynightthe accuracy of the sources named in the book (ie links to extemalwebsites and third parties) We do not guarantee that the content of the links used remainstact and has not changedProofreading: Green Energy GmblContent: Green Energy GmblDesign: Lorenz Koll and Green& Energy GmbHayout: Green Energy Gmbl

d thegrowthenewable systems, theDid you know that the vehown as theverage carbon dioxide emissions fromohedUniversal Exhibiti900? It wasar with thekilowatt hour produced will also hub The image shows the racing versicondecrease

Ewith the eleheel hubs onnot recharged by electrgenerated solely through renewableenergies the emissions wiThe CO2 emissions will be separatelyreviewed in Chapter 7Along with the pure electric Caare also hybrid cars thatgeneralo venicle systemwhich two or more technologies areSourcehttp://dewikipedia,org/wiki/combinedave an internaambuntion engPorschemotoem a veryart freower energy consumption and therefore lower emissions of gases that cause pollutionbe propelled purely through electricity eyrelatively few kilometerthis wayd

electric motorrms of efficiency, superiorDknowbustion engine An electric motorfect is caused byfficiency factor of circa 95 or more whereas agreenhouse gases like COz or modern diesel powered engine only has a maximuefficiency of about 35 % Dependingconstrain the transmission of thearacteristic and the route profile(forsuns rays reflected by the earths driving in city traffic), this valueer reduced bysurface which leadsa couple of percentage points and most of the fuel isglobalsed to heat the atmosphere rather than to propelthe vehicleworldwide agreethat theAnother advantage of the electric car is the abilityextreme characteristics of therecover the kinetic energy during braking

Brakicurrent greenhouse effect andpurelythereford thcaused by the emissions createdgenerate electricity andby humanityrecharge the battand is particularly effective when driving in citytrafficCurrently there are many differentrations in the world of hybrids They differ accordio the various traction components asas the degree of electrification of the vehicle Theariety reaches from Micro-Hybrid electric cars with only a"Start and Stop"function to electriccars with a so called Range Extender, which could be a small engine or fuel cell The RangeExtender generates electric energyg in order to recharge the battery or to diredrive the electric engine

a pure electric vehicle(Ev) the engine is omitted

The car is equipped exclusively with anctric motor powered only by the batter∠∞三N2從O三∠LElectric motor/generatoyRange ExtenderFuel tankigure 2: Hybrid car (left) and a pure electric car(rig

1-How do you charge anectric carWhat are the different ways to rechargean electric caurgeere arecharging electric cars, but weange soonGenerally there are threehanging the battery2=N2A三LLg the conductive metheby a cable and plugged directly into an electricity provider The inductive method, in contrast,works through electromagnetic transmission without any contact between the Evcharging infrastruecharging spot is equipped with wires which carry an altematingrrent as soon as the Ev is at theght placeelectromagnetic field, which affects the receiver(also consisting of wires) in the Ev in a way thea current is induced and charges the battery

T his method is the same as that used to chargeelectric toothbrushesCurrently, both the automotive industry and operators of charging stations prefer conductivefficient Yetwhich foccharging, because it offers a way betteruser comfort and could be a key feature for electric mobility

e third possibility takes into consideration the swapping of discharged batteries with freshstationbeing developed today bycompanybeble the dimensions and internal connections for thebatteries must be standardized Each electric car from each manufactritually the same size, shape and type of battery As this reduces the OEM's freedom of designand given that the choice of placeof the batted be severely reduced, most of themanufacturers rejectow long does it take to chargebatteriesrstly-thefrom the grid and the state ofde are the specifiar and the battebattery type, the cooling systemhousehold ofpe can achieve an output close to 3

5 kilowatt(kW)(Analog tocharging in USA, with 2 kW) Therefore, a battery with a capacity of 35 kilowatt hours(kWh)can be charged in one hour, regardless of any energy losses and other effects during the chargeThis means that the procedure for charging a 20 kWh traction battery takes around 6 hours(SA with Level I 10 hours) However, a high voltage power port supplies around 22 kW (Level2 charging) so the same battery would be fully charged in around 50 minutes This fast load caronly be guaranteed in facilities that have been technically upgraded for this purpose which2

presents aderable expense Furthermore, the current battery types still react sensitivelyto variable charging methods and therefore these methods of fast charging are not yet standardIt could be that the implementation of fast charging infrastructure would be a result of simplyputtinge public's consciousness, to demonstrate to the users that fast charging is possibleand that additional unscdVehicles are generally used every day andowing to the average distances travelled andtimecharging installation should suffice in a majority of cases

As for the amount of energy recharged there are two reasonable possibilities: A completecharge to 100 or an 80 charge An 80 charge is recommended when the process needsto be finished in a hurry and if you are not going to make long journeys afterwards Theproblem with charging the batteries is that the charging of the last 10 or 20 is slower andproduces more loseat The following figure can help to explain the influenceof load power during the process of recharging car batteriesLevelropes levelFigure 3: Time necessary for the charging process depending on the charging power and the

Battery swapping would be, in terms of time demandrobably the best way to provide a full battery WithDid you know thatechnologies available today it would just take around a would have to pay aboutminute to get ae downside of this technology050∈fodrive with a castructure(the swapping stations) but youcar(for an average fuewould also need a certain amoucostly batteries forle exchange It would also be necessary to standardize0Okm and aprice obatteries to be compatible with all car models and because50∈/)?withof this the removable battery system is rejected by manyst would just be aroundOEMs as well as many investors in this sector

4∈( for an eneof 20 kwhaging time is one of the most important aspects0Okm and a pnce of 0, 2e discussions about electric mobility A look at the∈/Whaverage use of the cart demonstrates that a large pare vehicle's lifetime is spent off the road so

in most casesfast chargingry day journeys in Germany and Europe are below 50 km and could easily beelectric vehicles despite the range limitation4 Grau A Pender: Die Mehrheweiter das Auto Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden 20094

oGreen& Energyable of contentsa briet overviw Oo you charge an eectnc carWhat is the lifespan of an electric car?4-What are5-Do govemments promote the purchase of electric cars6-s the electricist another passing fad?What are the levels of co2 emissions from electric cars8-What kind ofhe battens be available in the long terO-How are electric car batteries recycled?Glossary of key terms related to electric-mobility

s Today, the issue of elecmobility is more current thater Aftare not expertse field andng analye realized that the general pubacks fundamentalormatio∠e=N2

O∠4about electric mobility and itsmotivated by the desire to remove this deficit in basic information, or at the very least, reduced specialized public but ratherreaders who are interested in learning more about the subiectThe authors are three scientists who have dedicated themselves to the issue both during andafter their studies They collectively decided to explain ande their knowledge on electricmobility, explaining it in a way that is simple to understand, removing any existing prejudices andrefuting any misconceptionThis has been accomplished by avoiding the excessive use of puzzling technical vocabularyle excessive use of data A thorough reading of this bookknowledge of electric mobility and give you the opportunity to learn about the advantages andcurrent disadvantages and the possible solutions to these issuesis book is designed to give an independent view of the electrical performance of the cars and

ntroductionWhat interests you about electricmobility?-A surveyBefore we started working on this guide it was important for us to know what questions weremost important for the public With this objective, we published a survey on theet olvarious platforms

We eyge4000coud ages toa survey They were provided with a questionnaire consistingof 20 questions on electric mobility and, taking into account their interests and piknowledge, were asked to prioritize their answers according to relevance and importance Theresults of the survey are shown in the chart belowdo you recharge an electric car?What is the lifespan of an electric carthe electricVhat areWhat kind of maintenance and repair do they neWill the batteries be available in the longHow do you recyctric car batteriedoesnt matterFigure 1: The ten most important questions about electric mobi

gReen&erNumber one ost and therefore the question that generates the most interestquestion about how to recharge an electric car

for information is also largelyfocussed around the life and autonomy of operating an electric vehicle In turn, the surveyfrequently threw up questions about the prthe vehicles and thetion of themdiffeuntriesalmost 4,000 respondents demonstrates the greereste survey helped us to discover the ten most common questions about electric mobility

a briet overviewCurrently, car dealers mainly feature cars with aconventional combustion engine However, as thw that the firstbook will attempt to explain, they are beginning to electric car was built in 1834 byunderstand thate future, sales of hybrid and Thomas Davenport? The vehicleelectric cars will grow In this context, modern and was a prototype and did not hayalternative technology frequently appears as able batterieseries of concepts, parameters and names that youmay have heard of but whose correct definitionautomobile in 885 thenot fully known To prevent possible confusion and electric car was already knowto provide clarity from the beginning, this chapter isbut the low cost ofan introduction toect and providestime meant that the combusticoncise perspective orchnologies,as weengine prevailedas explaining some of the new conceptsSource: httP: /de, wikipedia org/the manufacturers themselves have problems wiki/ Thomas_Davenportusing the correct technical vocabulary

This isdemonstratedofproduct written by a British subsidiary of a US car manufacturer It indicates an electric carbattery with a capacity of II kWh(kilowatt hours), a fact which simply cannot be true The carhaskW a measurement that is used to indicate the electrical power more thallecapacityoftheelectriccarsbattery(seehttp://wwwgreen-and-energycom/blog/the-need

The main difference between carselectric motor)MOVE TO A GREENER FUTUREand natural gas are accessible andinite resources Additionally, accessto these materials is restrictedcertain regionsgenerated a significant dependenceon imports from the countrieswhere the fuels are found Theed for these deposits has often resulted in political tension and even warFor decades the incrglobal demand and limited supplycontinuous increaseprice of petrol and diesel

Another basic argument against the use ofels is the environmental impact caused by their burning For example, it is from carbordioxide emissions that we get the so-called"Greenhouse Effect" that has been proven to causemate change, resulting in many countries committing to reduce their emissions Thereforat liquid and gaseous fuels can be obtained through Biomass, theseethods have certain disadvantages For example, to obtain the necessary amounts of Biogasal areas that are otherwise neededod production This is particularly problematic in those countries where food productionand supply of goode general population is already difficult

gReen&ered aboveDid you know that the COz produced during thecombustion engine alone doesbustion of biofuels is almost the same as thent theof amount a plant captures during its growth? For thatreason, biofuels are CO neutralresehe it satisfiesconsumer mobility needs Unlikeconventional vehicles, electric cars store the energy they need for their operation in chemicalorm in a battery Cars with combustion engines also use batteries to store energy, nottraction but primarily for starting the engine In this context they are described as"starbatteries" If the accumulated energyhe motion( traction) of the vehicle they are calledtraction batteries, Traction batteries can store amuch higher quantity of energy than the starterbattery An ordinary lead-acid battery is adequateor a starter battery, while the traction batteryithium-ion or nickel-metal hydride(The energy for the electric traction can beobtained through local and renewable energysources

Thus, through electric mobility emissionfree mobility can be ensured Another advantage isgas producingcountries s noenicle owneot subiected to the costsdictated by the oil companies If the electricity isfree electrCO? emissions which are noemitted into the environment from the vehicle like conventional cars but fro

Along with the extensive number of utility companies there are also numerous methods ofproducing energy through bothand renewabledependence can be virtually eliminated CO emissions per kilowatt hours vary from country toed power plants respectively used methods for thegeneration ofnicitydifferthe figure below francewith about oCO/kWh, is amongst the countries with the lowest specific erworldwide

This is because over 75% of the electricity is generated by nuclear plants whichve relatively low CO emissions when compared to plants fueled by coal, gas or oiGermanystriaEuropeChiigure 2: Specific emissions for electricity production in different countries2http:/wwwzukunft-elektroautode/pageld_8368817htmi[geMis(2009))/wwumweltbundesamt at/fileadmin/site/publikationen/REP0303 pd