Home > Article > Education for a Digital World

Education for a Digital World

Education for a Digital World:Advice Guidelines and Effective practice from around the globeHirtzSenior editorEditoCopy EditorSandra mackenzieContributing Editorsh, Don McIntosh, June Kaminski, Madhumita Bhattacharya, Natasha Boskic, Nathan Hapke,Kirsten Bole, Dan OReilly, Niki Lambropoulos, Julia Hengstler, Elizabeth Childs, Susan Crichton and Ruth CoxDan McGuire--CopyrightSandra Mackenzie-Style Guide and Chapter TemplateKevin Kelly--Chapter MapsLearning Instructional Development Centre, Simon Fraser UniversityOCcam@⑥⑥BCcampus and Commonwealth of Learning, 2008Any part of this doay be reproduced without permission but with attribution to BCcampus andCommonwealth of LearningYsa (share alike with attribution)http://creativecommons

org/licenses/by-sa/306e chapter 16 cannot be reused commercially and cannot be altered, transformed or built uponBN:978-1-894975-292BCCAMPUS CACOMMONWEALTH OfLEARNINGCommonwealth of Learning2nd fle5 Seymour Streettreet Suite 12er British ColumbiaCanada v6e 2ege:+16047758200ax;+16047758210

Chapter Abstractse to take advantagand tertiary educators The chapter concludes with ample of identity construction and a possibleexpected complexities in fostering collabo- end point to online education in the form of Kathrynrative endeavours online The chapter concludes with Chang Barker and Karen Barnstable's discussionories and reflections representing online educational portfolioscollaboration from learners'and educators' perspectivesDENTITY IN ONLINE EDUCATIONCOMMUNITIES OF PRACTICEth contributions from Tod Anderson, Kathryn chanstable, and Lynn Kirkland HarveyThis chapter examines the theoretical and practicalunity of practice(CoP)practical guide to developing and maintaining yourCoPmmunication with others, begins, As students estab-CoPs Case studies throughout thelish their identities, they hatiate and engageapter describe the conceptiwith other studentschanntriumphCoPs in actionnegotiafrom those in traditional classrline classrooms arises not simply out of their time- and LOOKING FORWARD: STORIES OF PRACTICEshiftingDr sverse sets of manrelationships as studentsengage with each other Many of the lessons that we aim Much of the contemporary literatnot simply to do with mastering and/or blended learning casts it as innovative, and talkurse content, but also involve understandings of issues abounds about leading edge technologelaborating to- teaching and learning opportunities for K-12 education,wards shared goals Deliberate appraisals of learnetpost-secondary education, and corporate training

Typientities in online environments can help us realize cally, both are about flexible access and increasedse aims This position is supported by Tod Andearning opn's summary of secondary student participation inIn the K-12 ondary educational environnline learningch provides a snapshot for technot,these learning options enable students tological understanding from a locale that might represent plete work thatnitially this audience included students withechnologieshaveded illness or disability wheeen adopted from higher education We note thatplete course work that otherwise theuld miss or beondary schools face many of the same issues that tertiary required to take again It also included rural studentsand adult educators began grapplingwho wble to hntinue to face today These observations provide a post-secondary entrance Increasingly, this audience hasspringboarda wide-ranging discussion of onlinerkingarners'identities, underscoring the necessity for con- wards their personal learning goals and needs access tosidering learners' identities from the very beginning of courses and/or content at their pace and in their time

IntroductionEnlisting thee- based knowledge of educatorsthe higher education sector? How has the proliferationddress the aspirations and goals of todays infoICTs, and particularly mobile technologies, beerivy studentrporated by educators into their practice in diverseexperiences using learning technolocommunities around the globeThis book addresses these questionsance bodies have theirtively developed and edited by experienced practitice rolethe higher education sector It is the outputonstitute anty of interest that stimulatedde highly flexible and engaging course of- dialog among and between interest groups that sharedrings,convivial tools for instructors, more learners for common vision of providing best practice knowledge fccademic departments, increased recognition and repu- the benefit of their peers This is a book that had itsan institution, more mobility for learners be- roots in the organic discussions of practitioners anspecific si grams and across institutions--items with became a larger work through their collective intentioweenpending on viewpointto disseminate their knowledge more broadlyBut despite the proliferation of information andThe book addresses issues of learning technologymunication technologies(ICTs) within the higher in five sections that deal witheducation sector ICt use inmay nhave made as significant an impact on the fundaThe impact of instructional technologiesnizedclassroom practice as predicted, according to a report on Implementing technologytertiary education from the Organisation for Economic E-learning in actioooperation and Development(OECD, 2005)

InsteadEngagement and communicationthe report pointed to administrative services suchdmissions, registration, fee payment, and purchasingn Part 1, the book provides a view of theCT use may hain which infoanged the nature of the learning experience for many suit the diverse range of situations in which learning canof emergent ap-oaches such as those afforded by socihave relaxed thespace,distancechnologies and collaboration tools Parteducation But the fundamentals of holow do we currently approach the enrichment ofes in the creation of online courses, including mteaching and learning uCTs? Are there emergenmodels of practice arising from educator experiencthat may apply broadly to ICTcts associated with making technological choices innd learning? Are there best practices withinstructionaltechnologies emerging from particularurisdictions that could have wider applicatiright and licensing the imion of learningOECD (2005) E-learning in tertiary education: where do webols and open educationals,and the developeration adards ofpment(OECD) P

hasizes the buildingmunities of practicthin the higher educations of sustaining innovation in thesystem using ICIs and learning technologies thatnamically evolving instructional ecosystemenhance the functional aspects of the entire higher eduFrom the action perspective, in Part 4 the book pro- cation ecosystemfrom an ecological perspectivees chapters on instructional strategies, selection ofof this work present emerging pracdia,the use of games, and the evaluation and im- tioner knowledge for enriching learning and teachingusing learning technologies In this book, the authorsn Part 5, the book deals with the tools for engageave described and evaluated instructional approachesas well as for giving voice to learner idpower to change teaching and learning practicies and communicating their stories The authors dis- positive and transformative waysthe power ofunities of practice as a toolstaining change and maintaining colleague support as wealth of available practitioner knowledge on the use offorward to whattechnologies hotation

This book is one potentialIn a paper describing the creatithe authee demonstrated through their alearning strategy for New Zealand, Higgins (2002) proach to disseminating their work online, the powerdescribed the way forward" as a learner-centred aponly now be emerging in the hands of practi-roach that eassed thelete range of interac- tioners who actively dialogue with theireleand the higher education systernlylearner- centredctorit is an effective educational tool This means givingearners much greater choice in how their learning iselivered, enabling them to interacwith teachers David Porterand access appropriate levels of administrative, educa- BCcampusVancouver,BC、 Canadasystems in ways that best fit the circumstances and porter@bccampusneeds of our learnersWhat Higginsdescribthe need for ans, A(2002), Creating a National E-Learning Stratethe Open Learning Environment: A New Zealand Case StudyDistance education association of new zealand, availableorg/pcf2/papers%65Chiggins_ 1-pdfEducation for a Digita/ World

Part 1The Impact of instructionalchnologies

Emerging Technologiesin e-learningtricia Delich, Kevin Kelly, and Don McIntoshportant part of modern teaching and learning It makesto takestudents'ideas and upgrade them using emerging twenty-first century technology -SLeO1

4 ChallengesO12 Technology in educatioO11 Defining Today's Emerging Technologies

ContentsPart 1: The Impact of Instructional TechnologiesEmerging Technologies in E-learningPatricia Delich, Kevin Kelly, and Don mint2 Virtual Design Studios: Solving Learning Problems in DeveCountriCharles Quist-AdadeMobile Learning in Developing Countries: Present Realities and Future PossibilitiesPart 2: Preparing Online Courses /67Don mcintoshEducators: We're Not in Kansas Anymore- Entering OS /9General Principles of Instructional Design 13akasha boskicKelly, and Nathan Hapkeculation and transfer of online courseKaminski and Sylvia Curried evaluaDan O Reilly and Kevin Kelly

ContentsPart 3: Implementing Technology /2452476 Open Licences of Copyright for Authors, Educators, and Lib255678 Leadership and E-learning: Change Processes for Implementing Educational Technologiesly LaBPrPart 4: E-learning in Action /307Instructional Strategies21 Media Selection 32Computer-Based Resources for Learning /3423 Computer-Based Games for Learning /353Alice Ireland and David kaufman24 Evaluating and Improving Your Online Teaching Effectiveness /365少yPart 5: Engagement and Communication /37925 Tools for Online Engagement and Communication /38Richard S Lavin, Panl A Beaufait, and Joseph Tomei6 Techno eKevin kelly and ruth Cox27 Social Media for Adult Online Learners and Educators /4298 Online Collaboration: An Overview /44Paul A Beaufait, Richard S

Lavin, and Joseph Tom29 Identity in Online Education /461A beaufait, and richard S Lavins of PracticeKellyEducation for a Digita/ World

Chapter AbstractsPart 1: The Impact ofCHALLENGES CONFRONTED AND LESSONS(UN)LEARNED: LINKING STUDENTS FROMnstructional TechnologiesNIVERSITY OF GHANA AND KWANTLENUNIVERSITY COLLEGIPatricia Delich, Kevin Kelly, and Dr Don McIntoshWhile Canadianns scholar marshallmerging techneMcLuhanall in a"global village, the benefithow teachers teach andearn The abthe villagede a sizeable numberarness these technologies in the design of online class lagers as the digital divide between the technology-haycan impact the engagement of teaching andtechnology-have-nots grening by creating more options for learners to corKnowledge and ideas flow in a uni-directional, Northto-South (from the global North to the global SoThis chapter identifies several emerging technologiesashion with lite direction Adescribes how they will impact education, and exploresthe nature of cur atmosphere of mutual suspicion and recrimination, witlnt technology adoption models in educationsome of the villf"cultural imperialVIRTUAL DESIGN STUDIOS: SOLVING LEARNING the cultures of the"global village"to flourish in a tolPROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIant, mutually beneficial fashion, it is imperative thatthere be real sharing of ideas, knowledge, and values

There is no better forum to address the ever-increasingmerging technologies are moving the leadingneedward and, at the same time, enabling the develss cultures and national borders than via collaborping worldfrog from their current status tive learning The British Columbia-Ghana OnlineCollaborative Learning Project(BCGOCLP) did justogies, the thaigital divide may leave them further behind thanbefore! This chapter highlights the important role up- ADDRESSING DIVERSITYming instructional technologies can play in Africa,Asia and elsewhereugh the inndDr MaBhattacharya and Maggie Hartnettodcastindio and videoconferencing Studios for product detowards globalization of education will begnarchitectural design need to be more thanccessful only if we can find the ways and strategiesmal classrooms; they must provide design andwhere people could collabf utmostrtance forrawing and modelling infrastructure, pin-up boardsenvironment Connected global world peace, sustainability of our rich culturees and progtogether towards a better future To address theerging challenges and issues towards globalization ofeducation we need instructionalgn more easily and accessiblycharacteristics, dynamics of interactions and pedagogiprinciples for effective learning in a global contextImong peop

Chapter Absd strategies which are constantly changing EXPLORING OPEN SOURCE FOR EDUCATORShis chapter will include the poional and interaction design, modes of delivery andproaches to assessment, giving consideration to dif- This chapter presentes among the learners, This chapter will discuss free

software with refeding principles to address diversity in a constructive edtdistinguishesay through analysis of the impact of learning activiMovements, describes why these typessystems on the learning processf software should be of particular interest to educatorsfthe general public Licencesummarizes key challenges to adoption of frePRESENT REALITIES AND FUTURE POSSIBILmE software and provides a methodological framework forthe potential adoption of such software Citationspersealns from free softwareThis chatMovement founder Richard m stallmanng initiatives in places like Afoks at what will become possible asITY ASSURANCE BY DESIGNnd phones work their way into these marketsTHE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON EDUCATIONA shiftliDr Mohamed Allyproviding flexible ways to learn, but it has not reachedThis chapter provides a brief history of technologyits potential This chapter insists upon the importancenes the benefits of using emerging teches in e-learning, provides design guidelines for The design process must acknowledge the dual personadeveloping learning materials, describes the support of threquired for these technologies, and discusses future This ongoing process is based on three pillars: the identrends in e-learningtification of a pedagogical focus or an existing problemdevelopment and use)unified by real-time evaluatiPart 2: Preparing Online Coursesandimportance attached to e-learningcommunities in order to enhance collaborative learningLEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMagitation, andDr

Don McIntosh, with contributions from Kevin Kellysupport all participants in e-learning Quality asstevolve and meetrequirements of the 21st centurytechnical look at the features and capabilities of learninganagement systems for both corporate training and GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ONLINEders open-source systems INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNPeter fenrichs of needs analysis, selection, and This chapter describes the instructional desms choices Case studieswhich is defined as a systematic, repetitive pillustration It also describes technical and activities aimed at creating a solution for an instruc-development standards and associated software such ational problem It providesg tools, Learning Contlines for completing thegoal analysis, subordinate skills analysis, and learnernalysis This process also entails writing completeEducation for a Digita/ World

Chapter Abstractss, This content will remain valid in the ter aims to fill that gape in that the instructional design process is baseded bPLANNING YOUR ONLINE COURSIJune KarACCESSIBILITY AND UNIVERSAL DESIGNNatasha Boskic, Kirsten Starcher, Kevin Kelly, andWhere does theNathan HapkeWhere doesd2 What de plan look like,and how does it differ from a course design? Thisterthe broad considerathigh-quality leareparing an online course plan A plan is a startingfor people with disabilities Hmost of these ef- point for moving forward with the design, implrts are focused on the traditiface-to-face class- tion and evaluation of an online courseking courses fully onliWho wiWho will take thee beenwill theconductedperceived fromEvpen-endedeally is, As distance learning adapts to new technolplan will and should be refinedinstructors should be innovative in their relationshipadjusted during implementation In this sensewith studd in methods for developing educa- plan evolves, butwhich will be beneficial for all, regardless design work that needs be carried out

A planboth an ongoing reality check and a way to focuARTICULATION AND TRANSFER OF ONLINECOURSESASSESSMENT AND EVALUATIONDan OReilly and Kevin KelThis chapter reviews some of the basic issues of evaluainstitutions arying their accumulated tion and assessment relevant to both online testing andcredits with them They expect that they will receivappropriate transfer credit for relevanthavebethat credit to fulfill programts in the institutions they attend Online The chapter begins by detailing some of the moreobilityues for online testing, ones thr:students can and do access high-quality courseserally are not coveredreferenethis virtualks in detail ae third-party software, namelyNetSupport and Excel,anaging computarticulation agreements used by institutions and systerNet Support provides arecord transfer credit arrangements puter in a lab from one workstation Excel, throughave traditionally been negotiated locally and have con-weberned the assecourses offered in the familiar from any page in WebCT in order to monitor activity once-to-face classroom environment Fewes exist that page Detailed examplesovided for boththat will assist practitioners at sending institutions to packages, The quiz settings relevant to monitoring ae successful articulation of their online courses, WebCT quiz in a computer lab are discussed in detail

Chapter AbsHere the discussion foWebct 4l and alocomotiveThe chds by describeher ways to evaluate student performance,mation age the internet was born from the standardizausing rubrics andreview to evaluate writtion of Tcp/Ip, Http, and html protocols for thesignments submitted electronically, or askingto submit items within an electronic portfoliodards for railway track gauge, as weats, and HTML, typically startedwith proprietary technology that did not integrate withPart 3: Implementinges Endtechnoloenabling several products designed to servevides the groundwork for the development and descripUNDERSTANDING COPYRIGHT: KNOWING YOURRIGHTS AND KNOWING WHEN YOU'RE RIGHTngevity and consistency Given theDan MoGuarning programs, establishment of stdards fg is driven by similar demandThis chapter feexplanation of the ethical and consistency and longevity of use by the endbeforeright material innlineEADERSHIP AND E-LEARNING: CHANGEPROCESSES FOR IMPLEMENTING EDUCATIONAOPEN LICENCES OF COPYRIGHT FOR AUTHORSECHNOLOGIESEDUCATORS, AND LIBRARIANSDr Randy labonteis one thing to have innovative technology and preachlicence about its ability to transed banother to actually make this happen within tradiwing anyoneject to the con- tional, structured education and trainivironmentshaving to pay a royalty Sound leadership and changeto implementing theeducational technologiesThere are many different open licences, some for support e-learning programs and foster transformationmputer software and some for other fohrial

Each has its own terms, conditions andtudied and documented in the literature littleThis chapter is an introduction to operage has beend to the open licences that are important for authorsss or failure of e-learning program design, develand edand implementatraditional theoretical andicensing should get professional legal advice about the e-learning environments, yet one theory, ragingitutions thinking of committing themselves to open practical constructs do not adequately reflect emergingleadershdamental ations about change, control, order-LEARNING STANDARDSganizations, people and leadership in e-learning programDr, Randy labion Promising research affirms the criticalrole of leadership in systemic changeStandards exist for many things, from safety standards gn, development and delivery,firms that with-in the home for construction and manufactured goodss to the development and deploymenplementationourses for e-learning without muchntent and its dethrough e-learning technologiesStandardizing the gauge of a railroad track enabled theEducation for a Digita/ World

Chapter AbstractsBUILDING COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICEects The chaptelains hearning and describes how media can affect a learner'smotivation The strengths and weaknesses of eachThis chapter fothe develodium are presented with respect to the different learningtive technologies that underpiutcome classifications, as previodiscussed inpproach provides theChapter 10, General Principles of Instructional Desigfor greater understanding of thesehis chapter also provides ideas on how to keep thesConcepts that underpin onlinmessage cleardressed These concepts provide the basisCOMPUTER-BASED RESOURCES FOR LEARNINsocial ps, including administraive and technological frameworks, as well as leadership Peter Fenrichtechniques Modelling techniques are then described toh social This chapter focuses on the viabilivirtuand operational processes These modelling techniqueslb, shop, and other practical skills Topics include hoturage interdisciplinary communication and broadducational technology may support learners, problemsengagement in community planning and developmentwith "live labs, instructional design, controllingsome thoughts on articulation and the futurePart 4: E-learning in Actionbs, The instructional design topic will address learningoutcomes that focus on important skills, conteonger or weaker than traditional labs, andNSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGYstrategies for effectively teaching lab skills online

COMPUTER-BASED GAMES FOR LEARNINGAn instructional strategy describes theDr Alice ireland and dr david kateprocedures used with instructional materials to have thestudents achieve the learThis chapter first introduces instructional strategies This chapter gives you a broad introduction to the use ofcomputer-based games for learning We start with basicectual skills, psychomotor skills, and attitudes, Therms and move on to look at why these activities can bewerful learning tools, drawinhapter then describes hows and then homotivat' s in onlineAfter preurses Instructional events, the foundation for coples to spark youiscuss factors that make learningfective The chapter closes with tips for successfully getlearners beyond theting started using gamyour learnidescribedther parts of this book The chapterlents on developing and selecting EVALUATING AND IMPROVING ONLINEinstructionalTEACHING EFFECTIVENESKevin KellyMEDIA SELECTIONact studerusually defined according to several factors, such as hethe learning outcome(s) Selecting the best mediant material, how well he or she kiess terial, how clearly he or shoncepts are extremely difficult to teach without students, how frequently he or she provides timely feedthe correct media mixThis chapter introdffectiveness definitthe instruces:text,audio, visuals, video, animations, and real ob- tor's enthusiasm or disposition During fully online and

Chapter Absblended learning courses, students often need greater TECHNO EXPRESSIOnline course activities usually require students to takeThis chfoundation for online teacheThereforeK-12 anddary students' needsren more importance when evaluating online teachinexpress their ideas and viewpoints, both within andside the context of their coursework There is a humandiscussion threadchat entry, blog, or wiki contribution We outline spe a safe environment for technoPart 5: Engagement andd offer specific examples of how educators〔0 mmunicationan model and encourage this expression through varius technological malso describe various toolsthat instructors can use to facilitate the process ThisOOLS FOR ONLINE ENGAGEMENT ANDchapter complements Chapters 25, 26, and 27 related toCOMMUNICATIONinstructor and stuRichard S Lavin, Paul A Beaufait, and Joseph Tomei,SOCIAL MEDIA FOR ADULT ONLINE LEARNERSd wikis with a thirdigital AND EDUCATORSretelling, to introduce the possibilities of creatinMoira hunterns within and between classesand to encourage educators to take up blogs, wikis, and Social media alloyng adult learners to be coldigital storytelling in their classroonected, andages them to use all four languageturningskills of reading, writing, listening and speaking

The cluster of technologies in one support does noten greater potential when used together The firstload the learner in their immediate need to learsection on blogs argues that they may be the best allwhat they need andThe onlinelearners in discollaboration, exploratroduction discotand creationgage with others The following section on wikis pointsAdulrs have the choice to create and develpossibilities of using these powerful tools for collaboSuggesting thatny cases wikis work betto their own personal learning environmentwhen learners and educateady have a solid foundation in blogging This section outlines work that atCOLLABORATION: AN OVERVIEWmpts to merge the functions of blogs and wikis, andd Joseph Tomeigldigital storytelling, to wathis chapter we explore the notion of collaborativeators through the process of planning and creating learning from theoretical as well asrepare them to teach their tives Our first step is to distinguish collaborative fromudents how to do the same The process of assembling cooperative learning, because much so-called collaboraarious media and pieces of information into a story tive learning, although collective and often cooperative,courages deep learner engagement, and can be a worerfully effective way to master curricular content, while what we may be failing to do when attempting to fostercollaboratielogs, wikis, and digital media are but a narrow selec- else is possible, and what is transferable to online learnfor online engagement, but we feel they ing and working environments with rapid developcast a wide enough net to familiarize readers withpossibilities for harnessing technology to enable collaboEducation for a Digita/ World