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International Journal of Research and Investigation Vol 1



ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015using a photoshop-based image analysis(Adobe Photoshop cs5)in nearly circle pixelsredIce Spectrophotometer(Hitachi F-7000, Xe lamp) was used to measurethe photoluminescence(PL) performance of smallflower By 3-Dspecimen were excited by light form 350-600 nm while detection range was set during50-750 nm a wavelength scanning model was used for phase-reversing experimentConfocal Raman microscope was used for measuring Z-sectioning Raman spectraof smallflower were measured with a confocal Raman microscope(Renishaw, in viaRamaneica, DM 2500M)A HeNe Iles at 633camera(renishaw, Ren Cam CCD detector)

The spectra of z-stack collected from theOx microscope objectiveCLSM Carl zmeasuring Z-sectioning fluorescence images of smallflower The samples were excitedat 555 nm and detected with aof 630-800 nm Also a projection and spectra of zstack are collected from section interval of 0625 mm through the x20 objective lens

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015Study of Bacteria on Saline Wastewater TreatmentProfl acquahKorea universE-mail: asdisaac@@ korea ac krINTRODUCTIONA large volume of saline organic wastewater is discharged into the environmentannually Many industries, including printing, food pIgedicine textilepapermaking, chemical, oil, and agricultural pesticide-producing industries, releasemillions of tonnes of saline wastewater The waste water is high conetypically in the range of 10%-25%w/v(Li et al 2008) Besides the civil usage, therehas also been anf seawater used to flush toilets In 2008

theolume of seawater used to flush toilets in Hong Kong alone reached 2 75x 10 m ands expected to increase due to the increased demand from the growing populationCheng 2010) This saline organic saline water endthe environmelcause pollution unless adequately treated Thus, there is an urgent need to treat salinenic wastewaterAs the demand of treating saline wastewater is very large, lots of strategies havebeen developed and applied on lab-scales and induels Many are experot economically prudena large scale A low cost strategy usingly used for the treaBy using the salt-domesticated activated sludge, the wastewater with salconcentration under 10g/L had been treated (An& Gu 1993) Wagner's group reportedeakdown of the wastewater (Wagner et al 2002) Another approach that had beenadoptedtreat saline wastewater is by doping the sludge with halophilicmicroorganisms to become activated sludge after a long-term cultivation The activated0

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015996: Panswad Chadarut 1999) However, during these domesticating processes, thebiological diversity of activated sludge showed a sharp diminishing trend, as a result ofthe fact that the bacteria in the systethe saline enviro005: Yoshie et al 2006) The developed activated sludge was not quite suitable fortreat saline organic wastewater, especially in the long term Thus, there is still the needto design and implement new schemes for the long term treatmet of saline wastewaterAs35% the tothe strategy of cultivating the marine microbes' niche, sea mud, to bece a marineactivated sludge(MAs)is presented in this work thisely cheap as thereneed to buy any special bacteria The effectiveness of MASwastewater and the tolerance oficroorganisms in the MAs to varying salt2 EXPERIMENT2 1 Cultivation of marine Activated sludgeSea mud was mixed with seawater(taken from the Yellow Sea of China, 3754 Nake a 30L volta tank and thectivated sludge is hereafter referred to as marine activated sludge (mas)

before thecultivation was commenced, the sludge volume index (Svi of the sea mud-seawatete entire dcultivation(DO )was maintained at 25 mg/L by pumping air into theThe sludge was fed once a day at 8: 00 a m by the addutrients and replenishingthe supernatant with fresh seawater, making sure thatat 30 L The nutrition added to the culture tank were dextrosehydrate starchonium chloride and monopotassium phosphate in concentrations of 0 2064 g/0 1689 g/L, 00056 g/L and 00028 g/L respectivelyner preparation, activated sludge, taking from the Third wastewaterTreatment Plant in Weihai, PR China, was acclimated for 60 days The acclimation

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015a volume of 30L in a culture tank and the svI and the Mixed Liquor volatileSuspended Solids(MLvSS) were respectively 112 mL/g and 224 g/L The DO of thesludge culture during the domestication was maintained at 25 mg/L The supernatantwas discarded and replaced with seawater and nutrition(the same as wasMAS) added to the suspension at 8: 00 a m daily for 60 days The resulting sludgeAsther sample ofs prepared similar to the cas but using saline water(NaCl concentration of 304% w/v) instead of seawater

Theresulting sludge is termed as conventional activated sludge(cas°FillingCultivationExtractionure I Schematic of cultivation process22Wtreatmementsorganic wastewater, parallel experiments were run in three separate sequencing batchctors(SBR reactors)using the three different types of activated sludge For eacle experimentation in a SBR reactor, 5 L of the activated sludge with a 36 g/L densitylaced in the reactor and 25 L of nutrient-incorporated saline water The naclconcentration of the nutrient -incorporated saline water was varied from o%0 to 10 %ow/v The final mixture had a chemical oxygen demand(COD)400mg/L(containingdextrose monohydrate 0 2064 gL, starch 0 1689 g/L, ammoniumde00056and monopotassium phosphate 00028 g/L) and the density was 6 g/L After 24 hourstreatment, we measured the cod degradation rate to evaluate the activity of the sludge0%o W/y Bities were evaluatedg the degraceactivated sludge(MAS), the domesticated activated sludge(das)and the conventionalactivated sludge(CAS)2

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015ature controller: 2 DO meterH meter: 4 stirrer8 thermometer: 9 do detecto1005h8 h2 h3h0

5hFilling Mixing Aeration Settling Extractionmatic diagram of sbr reactorRefe995 Influence of Salinity and Ph on the Adhesion of Pathogenic VibrioStrains to Sparus-Aurata Skin Mucus Aquaculture 132(1-2)en Mx et al2014 Impact resistance of different factornia removal byheterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium Aeromonas sp HN02 Bioresource Technology 167: 456-462013 Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by a novelHalomonas campisalis Biotechnology Letters 35(12): 2045-20493

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015d AR dincer996 Effect of salt concentration on biological treatment of saline wastewateby fed-batch operation Enzyme and Microbial Technology 19(7): 529-537ee2005a Operational strategies for an activated sludge process in conjunction withzone oxidation for zero excess sludge production during winter season WaterT H,005b molecular analysis of bacterial community based on 16s rdna andfunctional genes in activated sludge enriched with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetd (2, 4-d)under different cultural condMicrobial Ecology 49(1): 15Lu J et al2014 Impact of salinity on treatment of saline wastewater by sequencing babiofilm reactor process Journal of Central South University 21(5): 1989-1994Panswad

T and C Anan999 Impact of high chloride wastewater on an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobiprocess with and without inoculation of chloride acclimated seeds WaterResearch33(5):1l65-1172Qian, PY2011 Vertical stratification of microbial communities in the red sea revealedNa pyrosequencing Isme Journal 5(3): 507-518Uygur, A, and F Kargalt inhibition on biological nutrient removal from saline wastewater in asequencing batch reactor Enzyme and Microbial Technology 34(3-4): 313-318on and functionplants Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81(1-4): 665-80Yoshie S et aldenitrification of saline industrial wastewatolied Microbiology andBiotechnology 72(1): 182-189

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015Zheng, H

Y, et a2012 Characterization of a marine origin aerobic nitrifying-denitrifyingbacterium Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 114(1): 33-375

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015Full PaperDesign of the Computer-Assisted Translation Programor Chinese and KoreanYimeng WangJilin Huaqiao University of Foreign LanguagesThe widely used technology of computer-aided translation by using computersoftware benefits our modern life for the language translation The typicallanguages we studied in this work are Chinese and Korean, including the spelld language habie used anddiscussed a translation program based on C++ language The translation programainly had the parts including the texts translation, the collocation correction, orderhabits and grammaed modification processes

When theChinese was translated to the Korean the honorific language system and theentenceas translated to the chinese the collocation of words had to be considered Thetarget texts were readable and understandable after translation from source textsKey words: computer-aided translation, C++ language, Chinese, Korean1 IntroductionThe technology of computer-aided translation(CAT) has been utilized in ourmodern life to assist the translation process by using computer software It connects therk with the computer softythe available cattechnologies today cannot result good translations when translating one language toanother, because the language habits exist everywhere in each different culture Asimportant as the dictionary-based translations which such programs store a largeI am very much indebted to Professor Y an Yin, who read and summarized this paperMuch The research was conducted during periods of research at Korea University, Seoul, South

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015umber of source and target databases and change the source texts to the targthe correction based on lang

uage habits is also utilized to improve the Cat After theding checking spell and grammar, adjusting word order and optimizingut texts become more readable and underlanguage habits of users can improve the correction effectiveness, by assisting thedictation program of translation methods and the edition of recognized texts(s KhadiOn the other hand, the languagbits have a very important rolespecially when our society becomes more and more internationalanguages we studied in this work are chinese and Korean Theorder and collocation are quite different for the two kinds of language The Chineseof putative Altaic language(Sanchez 2008) However, the Chinese is also a part of thelanguage which has been used in Korean history, during when China and Korea have aery close relationship Even for over a millennium in the past, modified Chineseharacters which was called Hanja was used in Korea until the hangul got widespreaduse in the 20th century, which first commissioned by the great Sejong for the nationalwriting system

Based on the similarities and differences of the two kinds of languageshabits we aim to improvehe cat technology in order to explore a smartertranslation system2 Matters of method2 1 Database of languagesThe computer language we used to store the database and process the translationC++ language(X Zhang 2010; Shi 2011) The database structure included theword structure and grammar structure The word structureded several attributesg(somespelling), characteristic (such as verb, preposition, conjunction, preposition, adverboun,adjective), collocation rule (in order to find a better meaning when translatedtarget text), language habits (cross-checking offline and online to decide which meaningKorea, from September of 2014 to June of 2015 During the time studying in South Korea, Ihave cooperated and completed this work2

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015the optimum) and target meanings(one word generally has more than one meaninghen translated to another language) The basic database structure of one sourcelanguage is shown asNumberSpellingLanguage habitsTTarget meaning 2Then we input all the attributes of each word into the database For exampleshown in figurin chinese has six basic attributes: *100database);我(wo/’( the spelling);"noun'( the characteristic),我(wb/)’ +verb orverb+'#(wo/l)'(thecollocationrule);wwwbaidu

com'(chinesedomesticatedebsiteofsearchengine),wwwgooglecomandtheofflinedatabaseofreferencesentencesonline and offline cross-checking):"L+(n為(chom’and“劃( chega/)( (target texts translated to Korean) with their number inKorean database 200001, 200002 and 200003 respectively 'Eat in Chinese has the sixattributluding‘100002,‘吃( chi/eat)’,'verb, the collocation rule(吃( chi/eat)subject or object吃(chi/eat)”), the online and the offline databases,‘四口( meokda/r drink), with databe has six attributes as we00003,“飯飯(fan/meal)’or‘飯(fan+verb online and offlinedatabases,“今( siksa/meal)andap/ meal) with database number 200021 and200022 respectlyThe Korean database was edited by us in the same way Besides the aboocabulary, many Korean words have different meanings when translated to ChineseKorean database hax basic attribution00002,‘對(cho/D)對(ch①domesticated website of search engine),我(wo’and‘那( na/that)' with databasenumber10000land10004 respectively“三川t( deusida/ eat or drink)’ in Korean3

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015database has six basic attributions:“200012,“三川t( deusida/eat or drink)','verbd)+三口 (deusida吃( chi/eat)'and‘喝(he/ drink)' with database number100002and100005respectively“昔( bap/meal)’ in Korean database has six basic attributions:“200022bap/meal)', noun,, noun+'E(eul),(auxiliary word)+verb, reference databasesand(xie/sawdust),with database number 100003 and 100006Chinese我(D)吃(eat)飯(mea)10000100002100003Korean L+刈升三葉2000012000032000200012200021200022Chinese我(D)那(thanl00001l00004l00002l00005FigureTranslation from source texts to target texts for the correction basedcollocation rule22 The structure of transition programThe translation program included the texts translation, the collocation correctionThe collocation correction was designed by cross-collocation of the subject, verbobject, auxiliary word and so forth based on the information shown in figure 1

Whentranslate Chinese to Korean,“(na/D+÷(neunere able to collocate with‘叫葉( meokda/eat)'and‘三小葉( deusida/bleAF(siksa/meal)+(reul)(bap/meal)'tE(eulhlanguage habits which would be discuss in the following the basic collocation whentranslate Korean to Chinese was very simple For example, I was able to collocatewith 'eat' or‘ drink' while‘that' could notBoth‘eat'and‘ drink’ were able to collocate4

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015t' thus after the correctioncollocation rule, a better translation for one word would be presentedas shown in figure 2 after a correction of collocation rule the order of thesentence would be modified In Chinese,‘我(wo/)'( subject+‘吃(chi/eat)’(verb)+‘飯tence whereas in Keun)+HF(bap/meal)' (subject)+E(eul)+E+(meokda/eat)' (verb)was a sentenceere checked in theirstly, thehonorific language as an important part in Korean, we have to check whether we shoulduse the honorific Korean in a sentence or not when translate language to Korean

Alsothe sentence我(wo)’( subject)+‘吃(chi/eat)’(verb)+“飯(fan/meal)( (subject)has twotranslation ways to Korean, besides 'Lt (na/I)'(subject(neun)+昔(bap/mea)'( subject)+÷(eul)+‘四kda/eat)(verb)x(cho/T' (subject)(neun)+AAF(siksa/meal)' (subject)+a(reul)+EE(meokda/eat)' (verb) is thed‘( siksa/meal)beabulary in Korean Thus, when the title or position of the speaker and thewere able to be checked by the system, the target translation texts should be checkedlanguage habits For example,e listenesir/missessor’or‘boss( subject)+÷(eu)+叫葉( meokda/eat)(verb) had to be changed to(choD'(subject)+L (neun)+'AIkF(siksa/mebject)+量(reu)+(meokda/eat )(verb) which was the honorific language Secondly, the offline databasewas used to check whether the translated sentence fitted the language habits as weluch as the reference sentences If the words collocation fitted theence sentencesthen the translation process was successful If the collocation was not able to be foundin offline database, the online database of search engine was utilized later However,sometimes some collocationsfrequently appeared collocation would be the optimum choiceBesides, a grammar-based modification was used after the whole programdify the translated sentences This program based on gr

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015utilized to add, delete or note some words in the translated sentences when the outputtedtexts were against the grammar lawsSource wordIst meaningCollocation rulnext meaningAdjusting ordernext meaningLanguage habiGrammar-basedmodificationEndle program flow chart of translation based on C++ languageThe technology of computer-assisted translation by using computer softwarsed in our international sociehe language translation

Typically for thereanthe spell, grammar, word order, collocationand language habits are quite different for the two kinds of language In this work,designed and built two dictionary databases and a translation program based on Clanguage The translation program concluded the texts translation, the collocationcorrection, order adjusting, language habits and grammar-based modification processesAfter the translation, the target texts were readable and understandable Hence via the

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015method we discussed in this work the cat technology based on the language halmight be more of interests to linguists and engineersReferencesSergio barrachina, Oliver Bender, Francisco Casacuberta, et al 2009 StatisticalApproaches to Computer-AsSisted translation Computational Linguistics 35 (1S Khadivi, A Zolnay and h ney 2005 automatic text dictaticcanand Technology (INTERSPEECH 05-EUROSPEECH), September 4-8 LisbonPortuS Khadivi, R

Zens, and H Ney 2006 Integratictranslation using finite-state automata Paper presented at the 44th Annual Meetingf the association for Computational lins and 21th International conferenceon Compunguistics(COLING/ACL 06), July 22, Sydney, AustraliaSanchez-Mazas, Blench, Ross, Lin, Pejros,(eds )2008 StratificationChina: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics andarchaeology? Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetilinguistic and archaeological evidence Taylor Francis PreShi Tong 2011 C++ Language Programming Technelogy AnalKnowledge and Technology, 14: 19-22X Zhang & x Wan 2010 Analysis and Research on C++ Language ProgrammingTechnology cer Knowledge and Technolo3282-32847

ernational Journal of Research and Investigation, Vol 1, No 2, July 2015An Investigation of the use of Instrument for ScienceheS T2Ewa wtyFourier transform infrared (FTIR)spectra were obtained using a Perkin-Elmerlarized infrared beam and a mir -tgs detectoes were dispersed in KBr pellets, and were analyzed according to 512 individualwith a resolution of 2 cm-l at 20 CFor surface morphology and microstructure, field emission scanning electronmicroscopy(FE-SEM) was carried oug a Hitachi S4300 operating at 15 kv afterdeposition of the samples with platinum, and high-resolution transmission electromicroscopy(HR-TEM) was collected using a TECNAl G2 20 S-Twin operating at 200kv after preparation by dispersing the polydiacety lene smallflower onto a continueFormvar film coated copper mesh grid(PELCO No

160Pore size distribution, surface area, and surface volume were performed from anitrogen adsorption/desorption using a Micromeritics ASAP 2010 at 775 K after the0℃determined based on briEmmett-Teller (BET) theory and ( Barrett-Joynedesorption modelX-ray diffraction(XRD) spectra were obtained using film mode of a RigakuD/MAX-2500V/PC(Cu anode)at 20 C Samples were evenly dispersed on acm 25cm clean glass and vacuum-dried at room temperature for overnight Typicalparameters were set at current 100 mA, voltage 40 kV, step size 002o and step time 1Oscence images were captured on an Olympus DP50 digitacameraOlympus BX5I microscope Fluoran expe of 17500 s in the porous starburst polydiacetylene for confirmationexperimedetection expets,and of 175 s in the porous starburst polydiacetylene for detection