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Quantum Computing Challenges and Opportunities

Table of contentsAbout the editorRealizing the pcAdvancing High-Performance ComputingQuantum Programs at IARPANIST is a leader in Research in QIAmerican Leadership in Quantum TechnologyAppendix A: Quantum Algorithm Zoo-math

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economic drivers for the 2lst century and that will not naturally evolve from current commercialOSTP intends to engage academia, industry, and government in the upcoming months to discuactivity in both fields, exchange views on key needs and opportunities, and consider how toaintain vibrant and robust national ecosystems for QIs research and development and for highperformance computing These conversations will offer an opportunity to discuss mechanismsdly-deinstitutional boundaries, education and workforce training, and technology and knowledtransferAltaf H (Tof)Carim is assistant Director for Research Infrastructure atite House officeScience and Technology Policy

william T (Tim) Polk is Assistant Director for Cybersecurity at the white House Office ofScience and Technology PolicyErin Szulman is Policy Advisor to the Chief of Staff at the White House Office of Science andTechnology policySourcehttps://obamawhitehousegov/blog/2016/07/26/realizing-potential-quantum-information-scietand-advancing-high-perfor

Quantum CommunicationsQuantum informationfic and techthe 20th century: quantum mechanics on the one hand, and computer-based infoscIence oner One of the fundamentally important research areas involved in quantuminformation science is quantum communications, which deals with the exchange of informationencoded in quantum states of matter or quantum bits(known as qubits) between both nearby andIn July 2016, the National Science and Technology Council of the Executive Office of thePresident, in a report titled"Advancing Quantum Information Science: National Challenges anddescribed Quantum Information Science(QIS)is"a foundational science, withcurrently envisioned applications( that)include sensing and metrology, communicationssimulation, and high-performance computing" The report also pointed out specifically thatQuantum communication, the ability to transmit information encoded in quantum states of lightor matter, is currently an active area of development" The report also states that"In thelonger term, quantum networks will connect distributed quantum sensors to allow longdistance transmission of quantum information"

It further stated that solutions"could wonsistent attention and support, appear within 5 to 10 yearss initiative the Ouantum Communication project in itl performs fundamentalresearch on the creation, transmission, interfacing, storage, processing and measurement ofptical qubits-the quantum states of photons Particular attention is paid to applying thisresearch to future quantum information technologiesOur accomplishments includehigh-speed quantum key distribution(QKD)systems for secure communicationsidth single photes for atoingle-photon frequency conversion technologies to interface stationary qubits in thevisible band with flying qubits in the telecommunication bandsficient single photon detectors and ultra-high sensitivity spectrometers for the teleecomOur current research program is focused on the development and implementation of quantumrepeaters a quantum repeater enables quantum information exchange between two distantquantum systems Quantum repeabe used to extend the operating distanommunications as wellorm future quantum networks Our ongoing research aims todevelop and implement and characterize the essential building blocks for quantum repeatersincluding single photon pair sources, quantum memories and quantum interfaces that can bepractical and scalable when integrated intocation system The figure shows

InternalSPDC photon pairsCollaboration1535/1570nmnterface/BandwidthFreq conversion“NNarrowinterface/1310FWM photonQuantum memory/Freq conversionCesium atomic systempairs near 895 nm895nmBell state measurement895nmBandwidthSPDC photon pairsNarrowingTeleportation1310nm1310/895mmInterface/711nmFreq conversionExternalCollaborationQuantuDiamond-basedBandwidthphoton sourcesInterface/Freg conversionQuantumBandwidthStoragesourcesnterfacesengineeringmeasurementhe figure shows our project roadmapIn summary, we perform research and development(R&D)on quantum repeaters and supportinmeasurement technologies Our missbridge the gap between fundamental quantumresearch and practical applications in industries and commercialization Our r&d is aimed topromote US innovation, industrial competitiveness and enhance the nations security

For moreinformation, contact project leader Dr Xiao Tang For more information concerning the ItlQuantum Information program, please select link 'ITL Quantum Information Programournal papersO Slattery, L Ma, P Kuo, and Xidth source of greatly nondegenerate photon pairs for quantum repeaters from a short singly resonant cavityApplied Physics B,121, 413419(2015)g-Su Kim, Oliver Slattery, Paulina s KIith continuous-wave multi-mode coherent light, Optics Express, Vol 22, Issue 33611-3620(2014

O Slattery, L Ma, P Kuo, Y Kim and X Tang, "Frequency correlated biphotorspectroscopy using tunable upconversion detector, Laser Phys Lett 10 075201(2013)4 Yong-Su Kim, Oliver Slattery, Paulina s Kuo, and Xiao Tang, " Conditions for two-hoton interference with coherent pulses, Physical review A 87, 063843(2013)5 Paulina s Kuo, Jason S Pelc, Oliver Slattery, Yong-Su Kim, M M Fejer, and XiTang, " Reducing noise in single-photon frequency conversion, "Optics Letters Vol386 Paulina sKuo, Oliver Slattery, Yong-Su Kim, Jason S Pelc, Martin M Fejer, and XiaoTang, "Spectral response of an upconversion detector and spectrometer, Optics Express,Vol21, Issue19,pp22523(20137 L Ma, O Slattery and X Tang, "Single photon frequency up-conversion and itsapplications, Physics Reports, Vol 521(2)69-94, (2012)8 J Pelc, P Kuo, O Slattery, L Ma, X Tang, "Dual-channedetector at 13 microns", Optics Express, Vol 20(17), 19075(2012)ps, C Langrock, Q Zhang, O Slattery, X Tang, M Fejer, "Long550 nm: performance andOptics Express,vol19(22,21445-2145620l1)10 M Rakher, L Ma, O Slattery, X Tang, and K

Srinivasan, ""Simultaneous wave-lengthtranslation and amplitude modulation of single photons from a quantum dot, Physicaleview Letter, Vol 107, 083602 (2011)L Ma, M Rakher, M Stevens, O Slattery, K Srinivasan and X Tang, Temportons following freOptics Express, ve2 L Ma, J Bienfang, O Slattery and X Tang, " Up-conversion single-photon detectorusing multi-wavelength sampling techniques, "Optics Express, Vol 19(6), 5470-54793 M Rakher, L Ma(co-first author), O Slattery, X Tang, and Ktransduction of telecommunications-band single photonsquantum dot byfrequency upconversion, Nature Photonics, Vol 4, 786-doi:101038/ photon2010221(20L Ma o slattery and X Tang "Single photon level spectrumfrequency up-CeLaser ph15 L Yan, L Ma and X Tang, ""Bragg-Grating Enhanced Narrow-Band SpontaneousParametric Down Conversion, Optics Express, Vol 18(6), 2556-2559(2010)L Ma, O Slattery and x Tang, Detection and spectralsingle photonsin communication bands using up-conversion technology, " Laser Physics, Vol7 L Ma, O Slattery, T Chang and x Tang, " Non-degenerated sequential time-biperiodically poled KTp waveguide, Optics Express, Vol17(18),15799-15807(2009)L Ma, O Slattery and X Tang,"Experimental study of high sensitivity infraredspectrometer with waveguide-based up-conversion detector, Optics Ex7(16),14395-14404(2009)

L Ma, A Mink and X Tang, High Speed Quantum Key Distribution over Optical Fiberetwork System, Journal of research of the National Institute of standards andTechnology,VolI14(3),149-177,(2009)20 L Ma, S Nam, H Xu, B Baek, T Chang, O Slattery, A Mink and X Tang, 1310 nmdifferential phase shift QKD system using superconducting single photon detectors, NewJournal of Physics, Vol 11, 054020,(2009)21 A Mink, J Bienfang, R Carpenter, L Ma, B Hershman, A Restelli and X tangProgrammable Instrumentation GHz signaling for quantum communication systemsof Physics, V054016,(2009)2 L Ma, T Chang, A Mink, O Slattery, B Hershman and X Tang"ExperimetDemonstration of a Detection-time-bin-shift Polarization Encoding Quantum KeyDistribution System", IEEE Communications Letters, Vol 12(6), 459-461(2008)23 L Ma, A Mink, H Xu, O Slattery and X Tang, " Experimental DemonstrationQuantum Key distribEE Communication Letters, Vol ll(12),10124 H Xu, L Ma, A Mink, B Hershman and X

tang, 13 10-nm quantum key distributistength at 1550 nm, Optics Expol15(12)247~7260(2007Boisvert, C Clark, and C Williams, "Experimental study of high speed polarizationcoding quantum key distribution with sifted-key rates over Mbit/s", Optics Express, v14(6),2062-2070(2006)Conference pL Ma, O Slattery, P Kuo and x Tang, EIT Quantum Memory with Cs Atomic Vaporor Quantum Communication", Proc of sPIe vol 9615 96150D-I SPIE QuantumCommunications and Quantum Imaging, (2015)2 O Slattery, L Ma, P Kuo and X Tang, " Comparing the linewidths from Single-PassSPDC and Singly-Resonant Cavity SPDC Proc of SPIE, Vol 9615, 961507-1, SPIEQuantum Communications and Quantum Imaging(2015)Paulina s Kuo, Jason S Pelc, Oliver Slattery, Lijun Ma and Xiao Tang, "Domainengineered pplntangled photon generation and other quantum infapplications, "Proc SPIE,9136, 913403, (2014)4 A Mink, and A Nakassis, "LDPC Error Correction for Gbit/s QKD", Proc SPIE, V04-1 to 912304-13, SPIE Defense Security senO Slattery, L Ma, P Kuo, Y Kim, and X Tang" Tunable up-conversion detector foingle photon and bi-photon infrared spectroscopic applications, Proc SPIE, Vol 872687260Y-87260Y-9, SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing(2013)6 Paulina S Kuo, Jason S Pelc, Oliver Slattery, Yong-Su Kim and Xiao Tang, Entangledphoton generation in a phase-modulated, quasi-phase matched crystal, Proc of SPIEVol 8875 887508-1, SPIE Optics and Photonics(2013)

7 Paulina S Kuo, Jason S Pelc, Oliver Slattery, Yong-Su Kim, M M Fejer, and Xiaopaper JTh2A 86, CLEO 2013(201-photon frequency conversion", OSA Technical Digesang, Efficient, lo8 Paulina s Kuo, Jason S Pelc, Oliver Slattery, Yong-Su Kim and Xiao Tang, " Entangledration in a phase-modulated, quasi-phase matched crystal, "P1SPIEVol 8875 887508-1 SPIE Optics and Photonics(2013)9 O Slattery, P Kuo, Y Kim, L Ma and X Tang, "Narrowed Bandwidth SPDC CorrelatedPhoton Source using Volume Bragg Grating, IX, Proceedings of SPIE 8518, 85180Y10, SPIE Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging(2012)P S Kuo, JS Pelc, O Slattery, M M Fejer, and X Tang, " Dual-channel, single-photonupconversion detector near 1300 nm, Proceedings of SPIE 8518, 8518001-12(2012)P S Kuo, JSPelc, O Slattery, L Ma, M M Fejer, and X Tang, "Dual-channeldat 1300 nm Presented in nonlinear photorDigest, paper NM3C6 Optical Society of America(2012)12 L Ma, J Bienfang, O Slattery and X Tang, "Frequency up-conversion single-photoldetectors for quantum communication systems", Proc SPIE, Vol 8033, 803306803306-9, SPIE Advanced Photon Counting Techniques V,(2011)13

L Ma, O Slattery and X Tang, "Study on noise reduction in up-conversion single81508-1~781508-8, SPIE QuantunCommunications and Quantum Imaging Vlll, (20104 L Yan, L Ma, and X Tang, " Narrow-Band Photon Pairs Generated from SpontaneousVIll, (20L Ma, O Slattery and X Tang, Ultra-sensitive NIr-spectrometer based on frequencyup-conversion detector, " Proc SPIE, Vol 7680, 76800P-1--76800P-10, SPIE NeGeneration Spectroscopic Technologies Ill (2010)16 0 Slattery, L Ma and X Tang, "Correlated Photon Pair Generation by a Single dualement PPKTP Waveguide at over GHz Repetition Rate, Proc SPIE, Vol 74674650K-1-74650K-7, SPIE Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging VIl,17 L Ma, O Slattery, A Mink and X Tang, "Low noise up-conversion single photondetector and its applications in quantum information systems", Proc SPIE, Vol 74654650W-1-74650W-13, SPIE Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging VIlB Baek, L Ma, A Mink, X Tang and s Nam, " Detector performancedistanevire single-photon detectorsProc SPIE, Vol 7320 73200D-1-73200D-8, SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing 0909)X Tang, L Ma, A Mink, T Chang, H Xu, O Slattery, A Nakassis, B Hershman, DBoisvert, High-Speed Quantum Key Distribution System for Optical Fibernetworks in campus and metro areas", Proc SPIE, VoL 7092, 709201-1-709201-15, SPIEQuantum Communications and Quantum Imaging VI,(2008)20 L Ma, T Chang, A Mink, O Slattery, B Hershman and X tDetection-time-binshift Schemes for Polarization Encoding Quantum Key Distribution System, (invited

paper), Proc SPIE, Vol 7092, 709206-1-709206-10, SPIE Quantum Cd Quantum Imaging VI,(200821 H Xu, L Ma, X Tang, " Low noise PPLN-based single photon detector, Proc SPIE6780, 67800U-1, SPIE Optics East 07, (2007)22J C Bienfang, A Restelli, D Rogers, A Mink, B j Hershman, T Nakassis, X Tang, LMaH XUdH sClark, CJ williams, " High-repetition rate quantum keydistribution" PrOc SPIE, 678067800CD Rogers, J Bienfang, A Mink, B Hershman, A Nakassis, X Tang, L Ma, D Su, CWilliams, and C Clark, ""High-speed photon counting techniques for broadband quantumkey distribution, Proc SPIE, Vol 6372, 637211 SPIE Optics East 06, (2006H Xu, X Tang, Polarization recovery and auto-compensation in quantum keynetwork", SPIE Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging IV, ProcSPE6305,630513-1~630513-6,(200625 X Tang, L Ma A Mink A Nakassis, H Xu, B, Hershman, J, Bienfang, D, Su Rlark, and C williams, "Demonstration of active quantum key distributionnetwork Proc SPIE 6305 630506-1-630506-6 SPIE Quantum Communications andIV,(2006)26 D Rogers, J Bienfang, A Mink, B Hershman, A Nakassis, X Tang, L Ma, D

Su, Cilliams, and C Clark, "Free-space quantum cryptography in the H-alpha Fraunhoferdow Proc SPIE 6304 630417-1-630417-10 SPIE Optics and Photonics(2006)27 X Tang, L Ma, A Mink, A Nakassis, H Xu, B Hershman, J Bienfang, D Suoisvert, C Clark, and C Williams, Quantum Key Distribution system operating atsifted key-rate over 4Mbit/s Proc SPIE 6244OP-1- 62440P-8 SPIE Defense andSecurity 06, (2006)28 A Mink, X Tang, L Ma, A Nakassis, B Hershman, J Bienfang D Su, R F BoisvertC Clark, and C williams, " High Speed Quantum Key Distribution System SupportsOne-Time Pad Encryption of Real-Time Video", Proc SPIE 6244, 62440M-1-6244OM7, SPIE Defense and Security 06,(2006)29 X Tang, L Ma, A Mink, A Nakassis, B, Hershman, J, Bienfang, R, Boisvert, C Clarkd C Williams, High Speed Fiber-Based Quantum Key distributionPolarizationEncoding, " Proc SPIE Vol 5893: 1A-1-1A-9 SPIE Quantum Communications andBook ChaptersL Ma, O Slattery and X Tang, "Single photon detection using frequency up-conversionn piMeasurements and High-Energy Physics, InTech, ISBN 978-953-307-277-7,(2011)2 A Mink, L Ma, B Hershman and X Tang, "An application of quantum networks forecure video surveillance", Chapter 6 in Video Surveillance In -Tech, ISBN: 978-9307-436-8,(2011)3 L Ma, O Slattery and X Tang"NIR Single photon detectors with up-conversiontechnology and its applications in quantum comsystems” Chapter I5indvances in Lasers and Electro optics, N Costa and A Cartaxo ed In-Tech, ISBN: 978

About the editorMichael Erbschloe has worked for over 30 years performing analysis of the economics ofinformation technology, public policy relating to technology, and utilizing technology inreengineering organization processes He has authored several books on social and managementissues of information technology that were published by Mc Graw Hill andublishers He has also taught at several universities and developed technology-relatedcurriculum

His career has focused on several interrelated areasTechnology

strategy, analysis, and forecastingTeaching and curriculum developmenWriting books and articlesPublishing and editingPublic policy analysis and program evaluationSocial Media War(crc Preoty Research Programs of theThreat Level Red: CyberUS Govrfare: Equal Weapons for All(auerbach Publications)Walling Out the Insiders: Controlling Access to Improve OrganizationalSecurity(Auerbach Publications)Physical Security for IT(Elsevier ScienceTSpyware(Butterworth-HeImplementing Homeland Security in Enterprise IT Digital PressGuide to Disaster Recovery( CourseSocially responsible IT Management(Digital Press)Informaticarfare: How to sCyber Attacks(Mc Graw hillExs Guide to privacy ma(Mc Graw Hill)et Privacy: A Guide to Developing Implementing an e-businessPrivacy Plan(McGraw Hill)

ntroductionQuantum computing is based on quantum bits or qubits Unlike traditional computers, in whichbits must have a value of either zero or one, a qubit can represent a zero, a one, or bothsimultaneously Representing information in qubits allows the information to be processedways that have no equivalent in classical computing, taking advantphenomena such asAs suchtheoreticallbe able to solve certain problems in a few days that would take millions of years on a classicacomputerQuantum computers-a possible future technology that would revolutionize computing byharnessing the bizarre properties of quantum bits, or qubits Qubits are the quantum analoguethe classical computer bits0"and "1 Engineering materials that can function as qubits istechnically challenging

Using supercomputers, scientists from the University of Chicago andArgonne National Laboratory predicted possible new qubits built out of strained aluminunitride Moreover, the scientists showed that certain newly developed qubits in silicon carbidesually loQuantum computers could break common cryptography techniques, search huge datasets, andsimulate quantum systems in a fraction of the time it would take todays computers Howevrs first need to harness thedifficult methods could lower one of the significant barriers to scaling quantum computers fromsmall prototypes into larger-scale technologiesOne of the leading methods for creating qubits involves exploiting specific structural atomicdefects in diamonds Using diamonds is both technically challenging and expensive Nowresearchers from the University of Chicago and Argonne National laboratory have suggested annalogous defect in aluminum nitride, which could reduce the difficultynanufacturing materials for quantum computing applications Using the Edison and mirasupercomputers at DOE's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center and ArgonneNational Laboratory respectively, the researchers found that by applying strain to altnitride, they can create structural defects in the material that may be harnessed as qubits similaro those seen in diamoneir calculations usingferent levels of theory arthed WEST codes, the latter developed at the Urty of Chicago Thecodes allowed them to accurately predict the position of the defect levels in the band-gap ofsemiconductors, The researchers also closely collaborated with experimentalists to understa

and improve the performance of qubits in industrial materials Recently, they showed that netdeveloped qubits in silicon carbide have much longer coherence times than that of the more weestablished defect qubits in diamond Their results pointed to industrially important polyatomiccrystals as promising hosts for coherent qubits for scalable quantum devicesenergy gov/ascr/highlights/2017/ascr-2017-01-a/Peter Shor's 1994 breakthrough discovery of a polynomial time quantum algorithm for integerfactorization sparked great interest in discovering additional quantum algorithms and developinghardware on which to run them The subsequent research efforts yielded quantum algorithmsofferingrying problems, and several promising hardware platforms forquantum computation These platforms include analog systems(usually cold atoms)used forsimulating quantum lattice models from condensed-matter and high-energy physics, quantumannealers for combinatorial optimization, boson samplers, and small-scale noisy prototypes ofdigital gate-model quantum computersIn the longer term, the emergence of scalable, fault-tolerant, digital quantum computersnew direction for progress in high performance computing as conventional technologiestheir fundamental limitations Quantum speedups have been discovered for a number of areas ofDOE interestding simulations for ched partind materialcience,as well as data analysis and machine learning

In addition, quantum speedups have beendiscovered for basic primitives of applied mathematicslinear algebra, integrationoptimization, and graph theory These demonstrate the potential of quantum computers to yieldbetter-scaling methods (in some cases exponentially better) for perforrming ascientific computing tasks Practical realization of this potential will depend not only onadvances in quantum computing hardware but also advances in optimizing languages andcompilers to translate these abstract algorithms into concrete sequences of realizable quantumgates, and simulators to test and verify these sequences The development of such software hasrecently seen rapid progress, which can be expected to continue given sufficient supportnagine typing a very complex query into your computer and having to wait more than a lifetimeresults Thanktists like davide venturellithe future could retuthose results in a fraction of a second Davide is a quantum computer research scientist for theUniversities Space Research Association Quantum theory explains how matter acts at the tir

els; in applying it to computing, researchers study ways in which that behavior can advanceB 'e explore how to control these quantum behaviors, to make them happenn demand in order to crunch numbers andocess infornboundaries of what is known in computer scienceQuantum computer research scientists help to solve problems In their research, they makecientific assumptions based on quantum theory and then conduct experiments to test whethertheir solutions work These scientists may be involved in a variety of projectsften focus onfindoftheoryproblems for finding the best of all possiblmost common today, process information using variablesith I value(either O or 1)at a time Quantum computers can use both values simultaneouslyresults in faster processing We know that quantum computers are more powerful thanbut we don 't know by how much yetResearch In studying information technology, quantum computer research scientists think aboutpossibilities

For example, Davide asks questions in his research such as, "What is the fastestpossible way we can make computers process informationavid and otherh scientistsuse their understanding of quantum theory to come up with solutions, Their research may leadproblem-solving computer processes that calculate and sort information much faster Forexample, research scientists might develop a theoretical solution that can be run only on quantumcomputers designed to produce better weather forecasExperiments To test whether their theories work, quantum computer research scientists mayconduct experiments or work with experimental physicists For example, they may create aquantum enviroith computer hardware, then test how particles in that environment reactto different levels of laser intensity Experiments that verify a theory may lead to improvementsch as more efficient computer design and fastnetworks But relying on theory means that scientists work with incomplete information-Seles surprised at they result in the opposite of whatexpect, says Davide, and you analyze the data to try to figure out whyTo become a quantum computer research scientist, you usually need a doctoral degree(Ph D)qualities and skills in addition to the formal credential As researchersquantum computer research scientists should enjoy being part of a team and sharing their

findings with others, which may include engineers, mathematicians, physicists, and Ph Dstudents This collaboration helps bring varied perspectives to solving a problem There's autilization of ideas when you work with different groups, Davide says "My colleaguesare very smart and open-minded peopleLike many scientists, quantum computer research scientists must have strong anal ytical, criticalthinking, and reasoning skills to solve complex problems Attention to detail is critical ascientists precisely record their theories and experiments, which must be reproducible and able toithstand peer reviewCommunication skills are alsoo share their research with collaboratorsquantum research scientists must be able to write papers and present their findings atconferences They may also need to write proposals for grants to fund research projectsQuantumh scientists usually need a Ph D to learn methods of discovery anddevelop the tools needed for researching Coursework in undergraduate and graduate degreeprograms typically includes computer science, mathematics, and physicsYou may decide to pursue a master's degree with classes in quantum computing before enteringa Ph D program

Davide studied physics at the bachelors and masters levels, but he waspassionate about computers, too Not surprisingly, quantum computing piqued his interest " It's awonderful interaction between the two disciplines he says, Davidd his ph dnanophysics and numerical simulations of condensed matterThe Us Bureau of Labor Statistics (Bls) does not collect data specifically on quantuncomputer research scientists Instead, BLS may count these workers among physicists, of which5, 650 were employed in May 2015 The median annual wage for physicists in collegesuniversities, and professional schools--where most quantum computer research scientists arkely to work-was $63, 840 That's more than the median annual wage of $36, 200 for allQuantum computer research scientists work primarily indoors, in academic settings, and maytravel frequently to attend seminars or conferences Area of focus or project type may dictatespecific details of their work For example, testing particularly intricate theories may take daysking either independently or with other

Whether alone or with colleagues, Davide enjoys his work for the independence his job offersYou have lots of intellectual freedom Nobody really tells you what to do, he says "Its up tource: Domingo Angeles, " Quantum computer research scientist, "Career Outlook, US

Bureau of Labor Statistics,uly2016https://wwwblsgov/careeroutlook/2016/youre

Realizing the potential of Quantum Information Science and advancing highPerformance Computinguly 26, 2016 at 6: 07 PM ET by Altaf H (Tof) Carim, William T(Tim) Polk, and Erin SzulmanThe Administration reports on challenges, opportunities, and the path forward in quantuminformation science, and releases a plan for high-performance computingQuantum mechanics describes the behavior and interaction of matter and energy at the scale ofal atoms or subatomic particlesarticles atrger scales, but quantum behavior can often seem strange andcounterintuitive For example, at the most fundamental level, both matter and radiationding visible light) behave in some ways like discrete particles and in other ways likeontinuous waves, resulting in surprising properties These quantum phenomena includesuperposition(in which a system simultaneously includes all possible measurement outcomesprobability, and only has a fixed valtch aentanglement (a superposle particles, in which their properties arecorrelated with each other) Taking advproperties to process inforworking at the intersection of quantum phenomena with information science--provides uniqueand exciting opportunities in sensing, metrology, navigation, comIations fundamentalphysics, simulation, new paradigms in computing, and a host of other areas

These excitingprospects are summarized in a new report from the National Sciand teCouncilTC), Advancing Quantum Information Science: National Challenges and OpportunitiesThe nstc report being issued today is the product of an interagency working group thatcreated to assess the current status of the field coordinate activities across the relevant Federalagencies, engage stakeholders, and consider ways to address impediments and facilitate progrein quantum information science(QIS) Efforts to date have included internal discussionsagency-led and interagency workshops, and public requests for information; working groupfforts willclude both Federal activity and outreach to the relevardevelopment, and related communities in support of the broad ecosystem needed to realize theinforAs a complement to the interagency report, the Department of Energy (dOe) is also publishingday the report of a recent roundtable on Quantum Sensors at the Intersections of FundamentalScience, Quantum Information Science, and Computing The roundtable report provides aperspective from experts in the research community on promising scientific directions, need

additional progress, and potential approaches consistent with the doehave also held workshops and undertaken other activities reflecting the growing attention to Qding the recent launch of a crossConnections in Quantum Information Science that complements and coordinates several existinprograms within specific disciplinesg strong connections to other related science and technology initiatives, theregnificant synergy between the Qis effort andNSCI) The NSCI is a whole-of-Nation effort, created by Executive Orde29,2015ensure continued Us leadership in high-performance computing(HPC)and to maximize thebenefits of HPC for the economy and scientific discoveryOne key NsCI strategic objective is to establish, over the next 15 years, a viable path forward forfuture hPC systems

The nsci pursues this objective through two concurrtechnologies that accelerate traditional digital computing after the limits of currentsemiconductor technologies are reached; and a range of new computing paradigms--includingquantum computing-to address problems beyond the scope of traditional high performancecomputing Some promising options on both NSCi paths depend on QIs Understanding andcontrolling quantum effects will be critical to further miniatur-ization of charge-basedcomplementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS) devices, and to refining alternatives fordigital computing such as spin-based CMOs or superconducting computing Basic and appliedQIs research and development is also needed to clarify the range of computational problems atential quantum computer could address, and to resolve the many challenges to fielding aoday, OSTP is also publishing the National Strategic Computing Initiative(NSCI) Strategicfully developed HPC ecosystem that meets the needs of government, industry, and aca and aan,authored by the nsci Executive Council Realizing the vision of the nsci will demand aThis Strategic Plan(Plan) focuses on areas where government engagement is essential increating the technological capability, computational foundations, and workforce capacity torealize the vision of the nscl the plan identifies the roles assigned to Federal agencies andospective activitiesnationof broad commercial drivers and governmNSCI, but the success of the initiative depends upon deeper collaboration among the FederalGovernment, industry, and academia in the development, commercialization, and deployment ofew HPC technologies and infrastructure The NsCI strives to establish and support acollaborative ecosystem in strategic computing that will support scientific discovery and