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The Millennium Time Project Alternative Time Measuring Mechanisms

The Millennium Time ProjectABLE OF CONTENTS1 PREFACE11 Introduction2 DEVELOPING AL TERNATIVE DESIGN DIAGRAMS OF TIMEMEASURING DEVICES21 The designers logbook32 Arrangement3 4 Materiesign concep36 Details of standard parts and componentsManufacturing methods4 DIAGRAM 2e designer’ s logbook4 2 Arrangement4 4 Material selectio45

Design conce46 Parts, standard products and components5 DIAGRAM 31051 The designer's logbook53 Operati54 Material selection6 DIAGRAM 42 Operation principle of the device63 Material selection156 4 Design concep5 Details of standard parts and componentsMiltiadis Boboulos Ph D

The Millennium Time Projec66 Manufacturing and production techi7 DIAGRAM 5designer's Logbook7 2 Principle of the devices operation22 Operati3 Material selection4 Design conc5 Standard parts and components76 Manufacturing8 DIAGRAM 6e designer's logbook8 2 Principle of operation2083 Selecting materials85 Standard86 Manufacturingques9

DIAGRAM 791 The designer's logbook2222392 Principle of operation of the deviceArrangement of the time measuring device3 Material selectio95 Standard part and components5 Production and manufacg techniques55510 DIAGRAM102 Principle of operation102 1 Arrangement of the time measuring device0 3 Selecting materials0 4 Design conceandard parts and componeB888106 Manufacturing and production techMiltiadis Boboulos Ph D

The Millennium Time Projec11 DIAGRAM 9he designers logbook112 Operation principle of the device112 1 Arrangemenelecting materialssign concep16 Production techniques12 DIAGRAM 10122 Device operation principle3331221 Arrang1222 Operation123 Selecting material12 4 Design conce125 Details involving standard parts and components13 DIAGRAM 1113

2 Device operation principle13 1 Arrangement1322 Operation133 Materi38134 Design concept135 Standard parts and componentsques14 DIAGRAM 1242 Devi4043 Selec144 Design concept45 Standard parts and22246 Production and manufacturing techniquesMiltiadis Boboulos Ph D

The Millennium Time Projec15 DIAGRAM 13152 Device operation principle15 1 Arrangemen153 Selecting materials15 4 Design concept156 Production and manufacturing techniques161 The d162 Device operation principle16 21 Arrang16 22 Operation16

3 Selecting material164 Design conce165 Standard parts and componentsg techniques17 DIAGRAM 15172 Device operation principle49172 1 Arrangement1722 Operatic173 Selecting material4 Design concept175 Details comprising standard parts and equipment ( standardarts and components)on and manufacturing techniques18 CONCLUSIONSREFERENCESMiltiadis Boboulos Ph D

The Millennium Time Projec1 PREFAC11ntroductionIn the remote past from the embryo of human civilisation people needemeans to measure time and tried various devices making many attempts to createsuch means, The conditions available then and the low level of socialevelopment and its habitual level of knowledge of nature and exact sciencesst impossible to create satisfactory methods and devices Initiallypeople used several most easily available means such as the Sun, the Moon andseasonal peculiarities as for example the snow in order to measure time in periodsdays, months, seasons and years [1]al which measured time relative to the shade cast by a vertically position bar in aflat sunny location Moreover, the shade moved along an oval-elliptical curve andad a specified length for independent hours depending on the time and seasonraps parallel to the progated [1] This is a device where a loose materialexample, Iseing poured from a container having a specified volume into another similarcontainer and this is usually completed within a certain period of timeks and devices for measuring time that emerged as a result of the progres esamples of which are still kept as antiques was later substituted by theexact sciences like mathematics and physics and initially based on the physicaand simple pendulum and its most important for the application scientificallyestablished property: T= 2Tvi/During oscillation the timeone pendulous movement at averagedeviation amplitudes is a constant value, which does not depend on the speedand amplitude of oscillation but only on the length of the arm of the peris was the solution to the first historically task from system dynamics

Ans thus created and establishedat was also used for any other device for measuring time or certain partsime, from 1 sec to 24 hours in a day or more [1] Gradually developing was thedriving technique and mechanism Weight clocks were also spreading The drivingforce in them is the potential energy of a weight mounted at a certain heiglwhich under the action of gravity can turnndmechanical movement into the mechanism driving the time indicating hands onscales and dials of various shapes and constructions Gradually, other potentialenergy sources and driving mechanisms were adopted like tensioned spring eitherearVarious electrical current motor driviadopted and recently, such based on solar or atomic power and living natureemperature and energy are being used such as the automatic self-winding clockmechanisms and clocks with solar or heat batteriesOne major problem has always stood in front of dgineers whenconsidering exIstinge measuring devicesmovement uniformity of the mechanism The intervals being indicated should havehe lowest possible difference from the exact time From all existing clocks the onehat is most satisfactorily meeting this demand is the pendulum with an arm drivenby means of an anchor and anchor wheel but due to the substantial dimensions ofsuch a regulator this has almost been substituted by a regulating mechanismwhich also uses a pendulum with an anchor mechanism but has the shape of aMiltiadis Boboulos, Ph D,

The Millennium Time Projectflywheel with a spiral spring This is widely used type of regulator and provideshigh precision of movement and time measurementModern society has created and made available a number of various timemeasuring devices and mechanisms startinge ordinary clocks indicatinghe hour, minutes and seconds in the day, the day from the week, the date, yearand time differences along the globe meridians and longitudes and end up in themost accurate devices for measuring processes and time with an accuracy ofmicro-or nano-seconds in nuclear physics and other sciences [212 Variety of common devices and mechanisms formeasuring timeAvailable devices are mainly basedcal mechanisms driven andegulated by mechanical means These areevices using geavementthe recent decades theprogresstala range of electrical and electronic clocks based on the quartz generatora movement regulator based on the exact vibration frequency of the quartzcrystal when electent oit thenerator connected to a suitable electiegrated circuprovides vibrations at 1/sec Hz is driving a mechanicaldicating time or when the clock is completely electronic -provides digital display21 Most electronic clocks combine the electmechanisms of c

ompletely mechanical clocks These are the devices measuringime in the power consumption indicators, electrical panels and cars where thepulse quartz generator is also useevices and equipmentndicating time in a purely electronic way or involving other mechanicamechanisms as relays, and time switches [22

DEVELOPING ALTERNATDESIGN DIAGRAMSOF TIME MEASURING DEVICESthis book altee scheldiagrams for theong with their manufactud part design and technology have beendeveloped This objective has always been a challenge to specialists and thosewho have developed clock mechanisms to the described level Despite of whathas been achieved, available devices should also be revised and improved to fullymeet the requirement of usageese areequirements, production efficiency, durability, reliability, appearance, safety andenvironment considerations, Presented here are possialternative schematicsof such time measuring devices3 Diagram 13 1 The designers logbooka clock device could be made using an idea close to the idea that thependulum clock designers and creators had If a pendulum having a bar andMiltiadis Boboulos Ph D

dopted thook vike the well-known homeuse the attractive and the repulsive force that could beduced in a certain sequence by an electrical magnet [2would be suitable to use electro-magnetic forces and some permanemagnets builtconstant angular speed w or interrupting but uniform for 360rotary motionhe idea begins to shape as an electrical magnet, which is fixed andconsecutively positioned at equal angles along the circumference of a penduluma diagram for such a sketch was made The difficultyermanent magnet along the arch towards the electrical magnet and then havinge electrical magnet repulsing the permanent magnete direction of rotatio2] The arrangement would bee direction of thegnetic field ofelectrical magnet is changed by bringing the permanent magnet- for example 1the position where the changed magnetic field would repulse it in the directionof rotation of the pendulum wheelWe elaboratedidea implementing a clamp wheel fixed to the pendulumby a clamp which is simultaneously an electrical switch switching the directionhe magnetic field

This provides for: first, attracting the magnet to the electricamagnet at a position where it can then continue in the same movement directionand secondly, holding in the initial position for attraction and repulsingrruption or return of the pendulum backwards, theclamping positions should be arranged so they can provide the suitable impulse atable momee conclusion is that the number of clamping positionsshould be twice the number of permanent magnets We decided to use a 2position electrical switch clamp [2]Graphic 1 Electric magnet working areathed the issue with the rotation speedator decided toup rotation is aundesirable possibility The air resistance of radially positioned blade or bladesit any uncontrollable increase or change in speed - movement uniformityrease in rotation speed resultsreaseesistance Rx Changing s(blade surface area) or resistance coefficient Cx couldcontrol the speed v and o(the angular speed)of the pendulum in this case, untithe indication is coincident with the correct present timeMiltiadis Boboulos, ph D

The Millennium Time Projected Thlator type couldegulators The electrical diagram issophisticated by electronic experts It is possible that some corrections in theelectrical magnet and electrical part of the diagram are necessary but providede requirements for the mechanical part and kinematics of movement are kepthe device could be made using available standardand a fewngenious ones and I do not expect the cost would be high Povpply could bed efficient usi5V or 45V battery

It mightuse a condenser or an additional coil of the electrical magnet The blade canrotate around a point somewhere in its middle so its radial position and resistingmoment of the pendulum rotation could be changed32 Arrangementa time indicating device is shown having a central indicating dial axle anddriven by electric current with no special electronic circuit and aerodynamiculatorig 1 A device with a central indicating dial axle and drivenectric currenthe support 13 carries an electrical magnet 14 having a DC current supplyand two oppositely wound windings both ends of which are connected to the twohe reversible electrical switch 15 whicon the support 13 above the magnet and the central axle of the disc coincides wri lopositioning clamp on the clamp wheel 16 with a central axle The disc 18 is seate axle of the dial and the indicating hand 17 Mounted at equal intervals (30)Miltiadis Boboulos ph D

The Millennium Time Projectong the circumference of the disc 18 are the permmagnets 1 thru 12 whichmove past the electrical magnet 14 with each rotatihe central axle o of the disc 18 is the wheel 16 having 12 cuts along itscircumference as the number of magnets on the disc 18 Engaged on the wheeandcentrically located axle Ol on the support 13 are two pairs of gearsg a transmission ratiohand 17 to make one turn around the central axle for 30 or 20 minutese whee21 is mounted on 20 and 22-on the hand 17 and freely on the axle O A radialaxle O3 is mounted on the back side of the disc 18 and a screwd in it foastening the arch vane 23 ensuring rotation around the axle O3 when the screwurnedWhen the contact 15 is actuated getting into one of the cuts in the disc 16and when power is available in the electrical cifor example the magnected and approaches the electrical magnet 14 as in thiment the contactnterrupted as the positioning clamp comes otne cut in 16 and themovement of the disc continues by inertia, slowing down15 comescompletely out of the cut when the other contact of 15 is actuated and thedirection toward the point 121 wlcause the magnet 2 to go in the positio11 which is the start position for rotation to begin Setting the position of the vane23 controls the speed, the clamp-switch 15 is pressed against the disc 16 by thepring 25, which is also a means torying fri3 4 Materia/ selectionhe base support is selected of brass sheet usually used in the production ofrious devices but could also beof stdestic brassor steel The disc 18 is made of a non-magnetic material -plastic or aluminiumalloy as is the vane 23axles are steel with standard gears or cast with themthey are made of plastic and are seated in openings made in the support plates3

5 Design concepin order to build a simplified mechanism using standard components andity ofdcomplicated regulators and electrical circuits36 Details of standard parts and components25 and the electrical magnet 14 and also some serially produced gears for variousdevices along with their axles and the hand 17 a standard dial is also possible to3 7 Manufacturing methodshe common and widely used in device manufacturing techniques shall beused and special processing is only necessary for novel components yet again byMiltiadis Boboulos ph D