Home > Article > The Three Dimensional User Interface

The Three Dimensional User Interface

Advances inan-ComInteractionCurrently the shortcomings of the WIMP interface occupying the mainstream position areFrom a technical perspective, WIMP interface used"desktophich restricted thealance of computer input/output bandwidth;ar and the small-screen effect: used the ordinal dialogue moprecise and discrete input; can not handle simultaneous operationry and tactile; all of these make it clear that WIMP interface is unable toSince thearchers proposed the idea of next-generationinterface three-dimensionalthe dimensions brings about a qualitative change目目Figure 1 3D UIansform the user's behavior and state intoputerd then transfexpression a user can understand and operation

Theinterface is ahuman-computer interaction that usdirectlyks in the 3D spacesual angloter to a cyber space that virtually unlimited, and interacting withects in a naturaharmony way This cyber space can describe things existing in the real world(that is, " realhings to virtual") It can also describe the things that entirely imaged or things that existingin the real word but people can not touch(that is, virtual things to real") It may also knownvirtual reality envir3D virtual environment system has three features which are Immersion, Interaction andt, which is called 3I characteristic

The Three-Dimensional User Interfaceks with the visual guidance However, some depth information must be provided byboth eyesBinocular parallaxbetween(average being 65cm), the two eyes look theject from different perspective actually, the line of sight has a bit different So for the sameobject, the relative position of eyes is different, which caused the binocular parallax, that ishe image in each eye is different The binocular depth cues is changing with the distancebecome &, when the distance over 1,300 m, as visual axis parallel, binocular parallaxit will not work to the distance judgementAccommodation is the eye initiative focusing action The focus can be accurate adjushotheestablishmentConvergence is that the visual axis gathered to the regardanted object with the distancechanging Cobinocular function, to get a cl12 Vision and reaction time(1)Vision Featureed at least 80 Pof the impinformation of oion, such as size, brightness,ment,which is the most important feeling

Afterof experiments, we know that the process oferception has thellowing featurewhen we observe objects, the visual lertical direction the estimated of horizontal directionand proportion is accurate andpid than the vertical directionthe sequpper quadrant is optimal,he left lower quadrant, and the worst is the rightThere is a relationship between color contrast and the human evety for differentiatinglors when people distinguish a variety of different colors from afar, the extent of how easiidentifying is followed by red, green, yellow and white The two-color match case is, black onthe yellow background, white on the black, white on the blue, black on the white, and so on(2)Reaction timeReaction time is the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and theubsequent behavioral response First the stimulation act on sensory, aroused the excitation,nannel to the locomotor organ, locomotor bioreactor receive nerve impulses, produertain reaction, this prebe measured with time that is the reaction tiF C Donders had divided the reaction time into threreaction timenoice reaction time and discriminative reaction time Simple reaction time is usuallyhe time rebserver to detect the presence of a stimulus ChoiceDiscriminative reaction time is usually stimulate more thanbut only asked for onetumulus to act a fixed response, and others didnt reaction The factor impact on the reaction

Advances inan-ComInteractiontime is in four areas, respectively: stimulated sensory organ, the intensity of stimulation, thetime and space characteristic clast ohe adaptation state of organall of hof timdint moving, the objectsould also move with a certainaccurately identified, but if the speed to a certain extent, people would not accuratelyainis the folvisual acuity, visual field, space identifye And the visual acuity is acuteness or clearnesspendent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of thethe interpretative faculty of the brain The visual field is the space or rangewithin which objects are visible to the immobile eyes at a given time The spthe ability of identification, such as theof object, the motion state and the spatialstance For the moving object, the sldistance it off observer, the bigger angular velocityit got, the more difficult to distinguish it clearly And the impact factor of motion visionhe relative velocity, age, the color and intensity of the target, and so on3D Uidely affecting all aspects of theThen thespirit needs afterthe psychologids by effective design strategy

UE mainly come from the interactivef 3D Ul Thesual design about the 3d Ul is to contttractre the quality oferman and Nielson, two research pioneers of HCI domain, respectively concludesability engineering(eg,seeNo Ben Shneiderman Jakob Nielsonearning TimeLearn abiliExecuting TimeEfficiencyo User Retention Memo ability④ErrorSatisfactionTable 1 Interactive System Design Goalinfluenced by all these factors above Experience is theresult of interaction between hid artifact (or other creature) in specific contextmmodated by intrinsic, psychological and individual surroundings which

The Three-Dimensional User Interfaceposed of motivation, exphabitude and a variety of cognitive factor In ordit with different kindsa new concept---EQ(Enjoyment Quality) is introduced and a hierarchical semanticdifferential nased on EQ is established (e g, see Fig 9)O FLOWJoy of Useo Ease of useFigure 9 Semantic Differential Model for Measuring"User Experiencehe phenoof Flowdescribewhich the semantidifferential is able to ret different level of EQ

Although its scientificalfurther proved, the model is able to indicate orientation of user experience in differenWith regard to"diby referring to Shneiderman's theory: key system, everyday application, and computgames, Olly, computer games are the most representativapplication of key system includes transportation control, nuclear reactor system, andir chief design goal is"Utility In order tooperators under highate quickly withlong time trainingaffects the system performance on its reliability and stability, so such isstemshedonic factoren into prudent considerationDisordered displand there [3), so"Usability"and"Ease of Use are emphasized repeatedgroup is moving: Usability has become an acknowledged quality asacquired a new associate, the so-called"Joy of Use" Enhances the non-enterystem the user experience already is the information system design important idea

Advances in Human-Computer Interactiongroupmpose thebehabletarget, and then achieve each goal through methods and process(for examtion of themental state or the taskent should executive the opwhich includes basicr deletes the select region by delete button)Figure 10 Cognitive-Based Interaction Modelxecuting action, perceiving feedback, evaluating result Usersognitive scenario decides the users' behavior Obviously, this is where the GSOMs comt, although the original GOMs brought up by Card was onceuccessful user behaviodel is appalnent, for example, becausefeature of tri-dimensional environomputer games

Accordingthan reprodcopy) knowledge Scenario is the extremely effective channel fointerface could heluser perform exact, reasonable, habitual operation And the non-entertainment system is ouof scenario and convey with symbols It values the knowledge that is far away from the realognitive Rheory based on study, which provide meaningful study and promote the knowledgetransform to real life Therefore, it is very necessary to extend the gOms model into GSOMS

The Three-Dimensional User Interface( the Goal, Scenarios, Operators, Methods and Selection rules) model The interactive modelof tri-dimensional information system is based on theario behavior proces223Scut for InformatiDesigner should focus on the layout of the interface to consider the arrangements in the 3DUl, in order to achieve information minimization We will analyze it from psychology,design, information display and other aspects

In the tri-dimensionalontrol The system offers highly effective resolution, including user behdesign metaphors of the task, information minimization and immediateeedback effectlex system, consists of numerous elements Anddeeded to be dealt with appears Therefoshould adopt a screen layout with compact and distinct information classification (eg, seeFio●coo●ou45 degree sght↑圖consists of three parts that are always visible:"Top",Main window", andtool bar includes theproperty of the users, time icon, and so on Here tousers for the state and the information directly, so that users can gain theg the shortest timWindor

Advances inan-ComInteractionThe mainashows the detail information with maximum scw as rich- information(formshadow, texture lights andometric ProjectionThe bottom is the navigationn information was refers to the geography object thpositional information, the generalized navigation also should include other functionignificant by whichknow theirn and thee theTheredifferent camps and terrain information through different colors, on the other hand, it reflectthe important events through graphical aninThese embody the landmark knowledge,road knowledge and overall knowledge, and the combination of overall navigation andnavigation is another strategy of human-computer interactiFigure 12 Navigation MapDifferthe 3Dct surface needs to unify thent withtorritory the attention to be extremely intense

When basis operation the field of visionregion gaze spatial frequency distribution, the gaze the duration, the gaze assigns target andand vertical glance path scope and number of times examines theppraisal, this kind of threereasonable has manifestedattention territory assignment33DUalysThis part discussed the interactive technology which is used in mostD interactivetask It clearly expounded the basic elements of 3D Ul: Manipulation, Navigation andsystem Control, and the following is arranged in accordance with the user's interactive

The Three-Dimensional User Interfacethat performs a speciteractive devices Usteractive task, The change of interactive dimplement methods and algorithms produced a wide range of interactive technology whichent technoloproposed this design method based on this classification As shown in Fig 13◇Technlque○Figure 13, Classification of BowmanBased on this classification an interactive task is firstly divided into several sub-tasks, andh sub-task continues to be divided into smaller sub-tasks until thereinteractivethe affecting variables oftechnobut alsguide to design interactivation the realization technology of different tasks weinteractive technology Although it can not guarantee that each combinationsatisfied users' performance, it provides designers a more comprehensive designThis method is particularly effective when interactive technology options of each sub-limitedtion are one of the most fundamenta tasks notnt but also the virtual

if aremarkabl nany of the specific application tasks canimplemented People's handnd accurately The goal of studying manipulation Interface is to enhance thepability and comfort, and gradually narrow the impact caused by human inherent habitsnd hard321 Introduction ofManipulation in reality usually refers to the action that people brin

g to the objects In the 3DUl we restricted this action to the rigid objects, that is

The Three-Dimensional User Interface545The current 3D virtual envirsystem included: Desktop, Half-physical, VisualAugment Reality, and Distributed Virtual Environment, in Fig 2 ShownFigure 2 3D Virtual EnvironmentsThese systems not only need the technology of viewpoint transform, but also need theteractive technology and lower usability of these systems

The three-dimensional userterface under the desktoponment is more mature12 Advantages and disadvantages of 3D UlbD UI does not replace the traditional 2D graphical user interface paradigm, but solves thepoor performance of the traditional mode in interaction, Comparedhe 2D interface itsScenario context3Denhanced the uprehensive capabilities of dealing with information,including ayperception, learning andinformation More importantly, with the trend of the high-capacity and highthe future industrial information platformurgent need for anot onnd differences between different types ofD Ul shows great poted information visualization makes information shows more directly and more easily tophics and represenderstand and identify the informationworld to traditional htmputer interaction; On the other hand itinteractive way through breaking the worlHowever, 3D UI also haings whichhdesiredOffer new different structures

Advances inan-ComInteractionD seems to provide the possibility for representing many dimensions of information andronment are helpful for certain tasks So we have to explore the bestlace 3d used inhere has not beensummed up a 3D fixed interface paradigm similar to WIMP On the other hand, 3D UId so on And the study of percand psychological mechanism of processing isret mature which also limits the 3D UI research in a certain extent

Although we arin a three-dimensional space, but in reality the rich three-dimensionalthe space layout, the human feelings, physical restraint and so on,not been a unifiesRelated Research Fields of 3D Uinterface related to cognitive psychologsciplines of study But the research of the perception and mechanism of psychologicalprocessing is not yet ripe, and it limited the 3D user interface research toe extentreality, such as the objects space layout, the human body feelings, physical restraint andon, do not have a unified expressionMixed RealityComputingThe researchmpacted 3D UIvirtuaArgument3D USimulatioaffected 3DUreatmentFigure 3 Related Research Fields of 3D03D user interface is an intersecting research area related to multi-disciplinary, it is impactby many researchuch as space perception, cognitive psychology And at thetime, it also affected many research areas, such as information visualization, entertainment

The Three-Dimensional User Interface54and education training etc The relationship between these parts and the related researchby fistudied from two aspects: Technology Elements of 3D UI and Design Elements3D I/O Device As shown in Fig 43DFigure 4 Technology Elements of 3D UIHuman factor mainly studied on visual perception and 3D depth cues, human spatialpabilities and the differences of individual ability, structure spatial know ledge of 3Dpects abovephenomenon which has been done a large number of exploration but not yet understandassumed that has a certain effect to the space know ledge Thisthat thetronger on-site users were feeling in the virtual world, the more effective his search pathdone

Many factors affect the on-site feeling, such as the3D InTechnique mainly researched on navigation, selection and operatrol The navigatiment technology, driving skpath planning, and the technology based on the destination, spatial knowledge, proceduraland operation researched on pointing technology, virtual hand,miniaturize technology, 3D desktop operation technique System Control mainly include theand 3D Widut devices include the mechanical input devices, electronic indevices, voice inputinertial inputand omnibus input devices It hassustained and obta problems: speed, accuracy,learning, fatCooped2 Design Elements of 3D UI include 3D Scenario, 3Dand Interaction Devices AsRelative with the traditional 2D system, 3D interface use its own three-dimensional sothe channelsderstanding others, communicating and cooperating with them, andwith different type of sharing object 3D Widgetonception extended meaning from 2D graphical user interface, similar to the button andin WIMP, the main purpose is to assist users finish complex tasks with low degree

Advances inan-ComInteractionfreedom deviceill be able to transform objects freely by indirect operating widgetthe degree of freedom of one Widget is limited, so it also wasknown asspace, and require users to remember the mapping relationship of each widget at thetime, so it is commonly used in desktop enof 3d interac3D UIFigure 5 Design Elements of 3Dce of hardware, the demand ofto the immersive entertainment, fronlber of application system makesre the sud huge market potential of 3D interface

Overall, we can divide the application to severaleas followed: simulation shows, realmetaphors and 25D Ul adapted from 2D(1)Simulation ShowsFigure 6 Simulation Show

The Three-Dimensional User InterfaceAs shown in Fig 6, the simulation shows have a typical application in simulation systems,PC games such as Sims M, prototype construction, etc The main feature is thatbeen known how to use the interface from their Day-to-day experience of life, so the timethe field of product design, the use of simulation shows is able to let the multi-designerself participate in the product design process, carry on the virtual assand virtual testThrough the intercommunion, can promote the work flow, personnel arrangement,tural and interesting operant behavio(2)Retem, its main feature is that the wholof human activityFor example, the construction and the virtual world are based on the shape and style of thearranged and organized space, thus the principles of architectural design can be transferredgning In solarchitectural are used, such as the wall, desktop, they allowed users to obtain the operationmetaphor is just a starting point, the interactive technique based on metaphor must be designedcarefully, to match the application demand and the restriction of the interactive techniques

Figure 7 Real-World Metaphors(3)25DUI5 D has a typical application in real-time strategy games, as shown in Fig 8feature is that the well mode of interactive had been established in 2D interfacthe 3D interface design easier to find suitable interactive technology; learningoperate 2 degree of freedom but not 6, so 2D interactive can letWe can apprehend the 25D UI as a limited 3D Ul, the interfacets is three-dimensionalplane 2 5D user interface is a transitional stage between 2D GUInd 3D UIimitated 3D interface display mode, appeared with the progress of the gametraditional 2D view, but fixed the user's perspective at a certain angle in the air (it's usually the

550Advances inan-ComInteractiononometric view), so itsent a virtual 3D effect But this is only a visual on 3d, becaurange, but never see the other sides of these object on the screen It is just like you paint a jarthe back of this jarFigure 8 2

5Dch a preceding positegration strategy on all levels of cognitive perspective, interactive and informationexpressIstrongly remind of thermographic images Acoustic shapes, unlike thermographicfrom the contour of the measured object Image overlays make it evedifficuand compare the results The diploma thesis"Digital Acoustic Cartography" is anvisualizations are image sequences recorded by the"acoustic camera, developed by Gal,erlin Both, acoustic and photographic imagestalyzed bythree-dimensional relief The color code is replaced by the photographic dat nal picture into aectrum of the acousticsed as distortion matrix to warp the originNaturalhazards ingraphic elaboration of the topic of natural disastersjava-applet Here, place markers(cubes) of great natural disaster

The Three-Dimensional User Interfaceding to geographictionchange in colour and sizend continents and get textual information Further functions include an individual filter ased in time The resuladable reflectionthe facts changeable interactive2 Theories and principles of 3D Ul deThis section explained some theoretical knowledge such as the depthand reactiome, dynamic Vision domain based on the princid behabased user behavior model -GSOME Eventually we concludevaluable principles and guidelines about screen layout, navigation, selection, feedback andtc All of this will guide the design of 3D UI systems2Any of 3D Ul needs export information to users through output devices Theyinformation toensor organ through the user's perceptual system Mostsmell and taste

This part mainly mentioned the devices based on the Vision How can thechangeunderstand? It mainlythe heyes, Understanding of three-dimensionalthe human eye and static/dynamic visual characteristics contributes to the 3D UI designUsers need to understand the structure of 3D UI scmanipulation, navigation and system control in 3D system The visual system extracts 3DThree-dimensional visual is the three-dimensional sense when observated objects, that is thhuman eye has the depth perception ability of the objects The perception about the distancend depth is called depth perception, also known as distance perception It includes absolutdistance(the distance between observers and objects) and relative distance (the distance

Advances inetween differentbjects Perception depth comenvironment extracted froran eye and depth of the many Depth Cr iomteesrmyternal body In the visuabe divided into monocular and bstatic, such as the environment and the physical characteristics or phenoIso includede In painting, the pffect in the two-dimensional plane by using of static monocular cues So Monocular Cues isMonocular static cues includehe retinact is obscured by another object, the obscuring object looksize Thethe object which is near to us is large, the video also big;that, the two tracks near the distance between the two rails nebroad, far naAir Perspective As the effect of blue-grey colfeel that, the more far from us, the less detailsan see, such as more blurred and themore light The disintegration phenomena that appear in details, shape and color isknown as the air perspective According to such cues people can also guess the distanceLight and Shadow We live ind of light and shadow

Darkness and shadow lookbut brighth-light part look near to us In the arts of painting, thepart far from us uses dark colors, and the part near to usvivid color This method canRelatively high If other conditions are equal, the object relathigher looks far moreTexture Gradient Itthe projection size and projectioetinagradient in the retina chahe small andWhen the observers have a relativeof the surrounding objects, far and near objectsill have a difference of velocity and directparallax is caused by the relative movement between theand object Suchmovement changes the size and location of object show on the retina, to bring a sense of depthWhen the objects with diffme time, motion parallax is engendered Once rotating head slightly, the relationshihas changed the activities of head and body caused the chanWhen wtched thethrough windoward train thebackward rapidly, some of the remote fields, buildings moved backward more slowly Theifference of velocity among the objects into estimate theative distance of them2)Binocular Cues