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Using Technology to Understand Cellular and Molecular Biology

Design Conference ParticipantsLa jollanl Gardner Curriculum Develomy Lee, King Kekaulike High School, Pukalani, HawaiiHamm, Project AssistanMaryann Martone, University of California SanBarbara Perrin Production DirectorMatteson, Pojoaque High School, Santa Fe, New MexicoUniversity of California Irvineane GionfriddoaliforniRasmussen, Graphic Designer/lustPreparatory School, Fort Lauderdale,s Administrative staffational laborMichael Schmid, BaylorMedicine Houstonpment CenterSand Creek High School, Colorado Sprinn PowelL, Associate Director Chief SciencEducation officercigh Yarbrough, Cimarron High School, Cimarron, New Mexicoy Satkowiak, Associate Director, Chief OpnalPrimary Field-Test TeachersadministratorCenteror Office ofgermantown, Marylandwilliam Mowczko, Project Officer, Oflice of Science EducatiBrenda Chenier Eastern senicWashington, Districtdy Allen, Editor, Office of Scisa Strauss, Project Oflicer, Office of Science EducationCarol Johnson, John Jay Science Academy, San Antonio, Texasmy Lee, King KekaulikeEdge Interactive StallCatherine Ratliff, Lafayette County High School, OxfordkEmp時MSouthern High School, Racine, OhCarol Wheeler, Pine Creek High School, Colorado SpringsEric Reinhart, Multimedia Engineerel, Sallisaw High School, Sallisaw, OklahomaKeith Gibbons, Catholic Central High School, London, OntarioProject ManagerSteve Larson Web direcrry Houchens, Joliet Central High School, Joliet, Illintrick Kosher, Cornell High School, Cornell, wisconsinTommy D Aquino, Multimedia DirectorAlan Wasmoen Mt Michael Benedictine School Elkhorn NebraskaThe structure of the oncogene H-Ras p21 protein complexed withmerPat Leffas, Multimedia ProgrammeIPid KirkIAudio Engineer/Senior Web DeveloperEnvironmental Healthessica Butler, Senior Web Developerand analysis of antie Riley

Web DeveloPerspectives, 93: 1Health underGinger Rittenhouse, Web Developer/Quality Assurance63-00-C-0039AnMalloneetions expressed in thisare those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the viewthe funding agencynoff Georgia Institute of techneold Spring Harbor LabeAll rights reserved You have theSean Michael Kerwin, University of Texas, Austin, Texaslis module however doesColoradCaldwell High School, West Caldwellther rights under this copyrightgsCo80918-3842:wwwbscsorSBN:1-929

Introduction toUsing Technology to StudyCellular and Molecular BiologyThe abilities to develop and use technology are us and provides the foundation for impronherent human characteristics We recogning our choices about our personal health androblems and look for solutions Technologythe health of our community with this modmakes our lives easier and more comfortablule students experiulmederstand andgies have advanced scientific discovery WhereThe national ceResothat education is altron clouds of individual atoms and reconstruct includes helping the pub sh its mission, whicldetailed three-dimensional structures of biologiportance of techouy use aal molecules, such as proteins, and biological to healthstructures, such as ribosomes

As the depth andeadth of scientific knowledge have increasedte lessons in this module encourage studentsto think abior anhealtthis wayWhat Are the objectives of the module?sing telogy to study car and molecu-Knowledge(what is known and not known)Biology has several objectives The first is toChoice= Peans of solving a problem, as aPower Behavior EnhancedHealthudents realize that technologies affect all fac-ets of our lives and that technology relates toThe final objective of this module is to encourore than computersin teof these relationps now and as they grow oldThe second objective isow studenvestigate how technology is used to deepen Why Teach the Module?d broaden our knowledge of cellular andHigh school biology classes offer an ideal settingrpen their skithis modcritical thinking, experimental design, and data that integrate inquiry science, human healthanalysis They also make connections to otherathofdisciplines such as English, history, mathemathe real-life contextcs and social scienceof the module,s classroom lessonsfor students, and the knowledge gaiThe third objective is to convey tostudents thepplied immediately to students' livespurpose of scientific research Ongoing researcha great inquiry experience Students

Using Technology to Study Cellular and Molecular Biologenjoyed the activity and at the same time, learned In addition, the module provides a means foow to apply what they know about technologyprofessional development, Teachers can engageThe scale activity really got students thinkingn new and different teaching practices likeabout the size of the cell and what is in the cellthose described in this module without comThis was a wow activity " -Field-Test Teacherletely overhauling their entire progDesigning Professional Development for Teachersf science and MathematicthIves, and we actually did stuff instead that replhis oneof just reading "-Field-Test Studentdow through which teachempse of what new teaching strategies looWhat's in It for the Teacherke in actionexperiencing a short-tedy cellular and molunit, teachers can"change how they thinkar Biology meets many of the criteria by which abouhing and embrace newteachers and their programs are assessedthat stimulate students to problem solve, reahe module is standards based and meetsson, investigate, and constructcontent

teadstandards as expressed in the National Snit suchEducation standardsand stimulate teacherattention to the standardsescribeiprove their practices by focusing on studentwhat students should know and beearning through inquirypect to scientific inquirIt is an integrated module, drat The following table correlates topics oftenheavily from the subjects of science, social included in the high school biology curriculumor concepts presented in this modhe module has a Web-based technologycomponent on which there is an interactivers make decisions about incorpodatabase and simulationsmaterial into the curriculunene notedf you have any questions about the supplethessment Icoment, please contact the nih office of ScienceEducatt supplements@science educationnih gow

Correlation of Using Technology to Study Cellular and Molecular Biology toHigh School Biology TopicsLesson 4technologies is continuousand the ability to developnew technologies is chaacteristic of humansTechnology provides aof solving aBiological structures differDifferent technologiesare used to study biologiof dsIzesBiologists use microscopesto study cellsProteins are ibiological molecules

Theircture is related to thScience and technologynfluence and are influed b

Implementing the ModuleThe four lessons in this mWhat Are the Science Concepts and Howto be taught in sequence for approximately one Are They Connected?week as a replacement for a part of the standardssons are organized into a ceurriculum in high school biology The followframework that allows students to move fromng pages offer general suggestions about uswhat they already know about technology, someterialswill findof which may be incorrect, to gaining a scienprovided tific perspective on the nature of technologportance to science and to their li/sing Technology to Study Cellular and Molecular ing about scale(What Is Technology?)

sudanWhat Are the Goals of the module?developingwn definition of it andgy is designed to help studerhese continue to explore the concept of scale andajor goaciated with scientific literac scIentnvestigation of how technologies can be usedated to theand role ofsolve scientific problems related to humattechnology in biological science and to the health(Putting Technology to Work) allowseffects of technology on human healthdents to gain a deeper understanding ofthe process of scientific inetechnologys importance to our lives The findevelop an enhanced understanding ofsson, Technology: How Much Is Enough?, allowsure and methods of sciestudents to consider the current state of techology and design new technologies to answerand the relatiobetween basic sciencequestions of relevance to celo help prepare high school biology students science content and conceptual flow of the clasfor the technological world theyScience content of the lessonsScience Contentn tEchnology;scaleLesson 2Lesson 3Microscopy; X-ray crystallography: using technology to understand and solve healthHistory of technology development;develo

Using Technology to Study Cellular and Molecular BiologConceptual Flow of the LessonsLessonLearnirdevelop skills, and extract or collect materials It is also theapplication of science(the combination of the scientificmethod and material) to meet an objective or solve a prob-em Scale is a way to represent the relationship between thactual size of an object and how that size is characterizedmerically or visuallLesson 2ExplIt is important to identify the right tool (technology) for theResolvingExplainb An important consideration is technologys ability toesolve structural details of biological objects Two objectsn be resolved if they are illuminated with radiation(thatprobe)of wavelength(that) that is not lathat results Detailed structural knowledge about biologicalobjects requires information obtained in three dimensions,Puttining different information about an object

Solving a problemWorkgy tolaseerequires an appropriate technology or series of technologiesTechnology provides valuable tools for solving scientific prob-New technologies are developed and old technologies areimproved and refined, continuously This must be done toHow Much Ismeet the demands created by new and existing problems*See How Does the SE Instructional Model Promote Active, Collaborative, Inquiry-Based Learning? on paglow Does the module correlate to theational Science education Standards (NSeNational Science Education Standards?sing Technology to Study celluleards based each time a standard is addressedth the applicable standard The followingence education in the spirit of the chart lists the specific content standards thhis module addresses

Content Standards: High SchoolStandard AAs a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should developUsing Technology toStudy Cellular aMolecular BiologyAbilities necessary to do scientific inquiryIdentify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigationsLessons 1 2 3Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations andLessons 23

4late and revise scientific explanations and models using logic Lessorand evidenceRecognize and analyze alternative explanand modeLessons 13Communicate and defend a scientific argumentScientists usually inquire about how physical, living, or designedLessons 3

4tems functiScientists conduct investigations for a wide variety of reasons, such as Lesson 3to discover new aspects of the natuld, to explain observedor to test conclusions of prior investigatitions of current theoriesScientists rely on technology to enhance gathering and manipulating Lessons 2, 3, 4Mathematics is essential in all aspects of scientific inquiryNew knowledge and methods emerge from different types of investi- Lessons 3, 4ations and public communication among scientistsStandard BAs a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students shouldngtructure and properties of matterThe physical properties of molecules are determined by the structure Lesson 3StandardAs a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students shoulddevelop understanding of

ContentsAbout the national institutes of healthe National Center for research resourcesIntroduction to Using Technology to Study Cellular and Molecular bioleWhy Teach the modufor the TeachImplementing the ModuWhat Are the goals of the moduleWhat Are the Science Concepts and How Are They Connectednce content osonsConceptual flow of the lessonsHow does the module correlate to the national science education standardsAssessment StandardsEngageExploreHow Does the Module Support Ongoing AssessmentHow Can Controversial topics be handled in the Classroom?t of the lessonHardware/Software Requirementsd Installing Macromedia Flash PlayGetting the Most out of the Web SiteCollaborative GroupsWeb activities for studerth disabilitieInformation about Using Technologylular and Molecular Biology2 Major Preconceptions

Scale and resolu31 Scal32Rthe Study of Ced4 1 Microscop4

2 X-ray crystallography43 Nuclear magnetic resce(NMr) spectroscopy44 Laser technolo45 Simulations and cechnology and the Origins of Molecular Biology6 The goal ofReferenceStudent lessonsLesson l-What Is technologyLesson 3--Putting Technology to WorkLesson 4--Technology: How Much Is EnoughMaste

Forewordplement, from The NIhctive and collabourriculum Supplement Series, brings cuttingp studetdical scih disroblem-solving strategies and criticoveries from thtitutes of Health (Nld) into classroEach curriculum supplement comes with amplete set of materials for both teachers andhe United States, NIH playstudents, including printed materials, exhealth of all americalo Iostive background and resource infoInterestch science and medicined a web site with interactive activities therelated careers for future generations NIH'stributed at no cost to teach-Office of Science Education(OSdedicateds across the United States All materials maybe copied for classroom use but may not besold we welcome feedback from our userFor a complete list of curriculum supplementsWe designed thispdates, availability and ordering informatiricolar to submit feedback, please visit our Web siteboth the state and local levels and to be consishttpsciducation niltent with national science education standardStt wOffiposed of teachers, scientists, medical experts,National institutes of heaand other professionals with rel6705 Rockledge Dr, Suite 700 MSC 7984area expertise from schools and institutes fromBethesda Md 20892-798icross the country; and by NIH scientists andcurriculum-design experts from Biological Scinces Curriculum Study(BsCS), Edge Intertalented staff at BSCS, Edge Interactive, andactive, and SAIC

The authors incorporatedSAIC We are also grateful to the NIH scientists,tudies intoadvisors, and all other participating professiolassroom activities, a threals for their work and dedication Finally, weded geographically dispersed field thank the teachers and students who particitests by teachers and studentsd tests to ensureof this module enables teachers effectivefind oo effectively facilitate learning and stimulateandou a pstudent interest by applying scientific conceptsductive school veato real-life scenarios Design elements include aconceptualow of lessons based on bscss 5eBruce A Fuchs Ph DDirectormphasizing cutting-edge scienceassessment tools, ActNationalof healted the national science education standards whichns should understand about science by the time they graduate from high school The Standards encourages teachers toselect major science concepts that empower students to use information to solve problems rather than stressing memoriza-tion of unrelated information

About the national institutes of healthas the one- room Laboratory of Hygienbiological effects of environmental contamihe National Institutes of Health(NIH)understanding of mental, addiecenters and the fedhysical disorders andollection, dissemination, and exchange ofinformation in medicine and health includMission and Goalsvelopment and support of medicalThe NIH mission is science in pursuit of fundabraries and the training of medical librarmental knowledge about the nature and behavans and other health information specialistsknowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the organizationburdens ofd disability The7 separate institutes and centersNIH is one of eight healtfoster fundamental creative discoverieslealth Service within the US Departmennovative research strategies, and theirof health and human services NiH encomapplications as a basis for advancing signifi- passes 75 buildings on more than 300 acres inantly the nations capacity to protect andBethesda Md

as well as facilities at severalain and renew scientificfrom about $300 in 188moreresources-boand physical-thatthan $27 8 billion in 2004Research Programsexpand the knowledge base in medical andOne of NIH's principal conceassociated sciences in order to enhance thewisely the tax dollars entrusted to it fotions economic well-being and ensure athe support and conduct ofontinued high return on the public inApproximately 82 percent of the investmentade through grants and contracts supportIng research and traininggrity, pns throughout the unitedand social responsibility in theStates and abroad In fact, NiH grantees areNIH works toward meeting those goals by pro- mural Research program up the Theseencelocated in every state in the country tgrants and contracts makeviding leadership, direction, and grant supportprograms designed to improve the healtget gNIHs Intramural Research Programs the moredias2,000 projectsed mainlprocesses of human growth and developmetwn laboratories These projects are central tothe nih scientific effort First

entists collaborate with one another regardtute affif Nobel prizes for achieveand have the intellectual freedom to pursuediverse as deciphering the genetic code and identheir research leads in Nihs own laboratorietifying the causes of herThese explorations range from basic biology tomajor diseaseseries in Nih laboratories You can learn moreed nGrant-Making ProcessThe grant-making process beginsthat aThImpact on the Nations Healthmight be small, or it might involve millions ofThrougharch, NIH has playedole in making possible many achievementsdiately as a diagnostic test or new treatmente past fert might involve studies of basic biological pro-Mortality from heart disease, the numberesses whose clinical value may not be apparenne killer in the United States, dropped byfor many years6 percent between 1977 and 1999Improved treatments and detection methodsicreased the relative fivereview A panel of scientific experts, primarily60ent who are activend psychotand productive researchers in the biomeccal sciences first evaluates the scientific meritorwaThen, a national advisorybetter, more productive futurecouncil or board composed of eminent scienaccines are now available that protecttists as well as members of the public who areagainst infectious diseases that once killedinterested ine biomedical sciand disabled millions of children and adultsences, determines the projects overall merit andn 1990 NIH researchers performed thepriority in advancing the research agenda of therst trial of gene therapy in humans

Scienparticular NIH fundingsts areingly able to locate, identifyand describeabout 38500ulare reviewed annually through the nih peerdls and geneH supportstherapies for the general popul35,000 grants in universities, medical schoocer and many other disand other research and research training institutions, both nationally and internationallyFor more information aNIHvisithttp://wwwnihgovNIH NobelistsThe roster of people who have conducted NIHesearch or who have received NIH support overthe years includes some of the world's most illus

About the national center forResearch resourcesThe National Center for Research ResoNIH(NCRR) is a component of the National Insnents that are profetes of Health (NIH), one of the worlds fore- ally staffede-of-the-art technologiesbiomedical research organizations Theand Web-based networks, and provide colnstitutes and centers that compose NIH fundaborative research opportunities NCRR alsobiomedical research to uncover new know lsupports networks of National Gene Vector Lab-edge that will lead to better health for everyoneratories and human islet cell resource cenn the nation

Among the Nih institutes aers a resource for normal and diseased humancenters, NCrR has a unique role Rather than tissue for research, andpporting studies offic diseases or dis-K-12 studeorders, NCRR supports programs thatthat essential tools, materials, specialized facili- Comparative Medicine: Animal models andndes for infrastructure and manpower development are accessible to biomedicalenetic stocks, and biological materials-suchresearchers throughout the nation In this way,as cell lines, tissues, and organs--help meetNCrR enables research in many areas of heaNIH-supported investigators' resource needs Inons of the nihparticular, the NCRR network of eight Nationegorical institutes Ncrr's diversePrimate Research Centers is a valuable resod in fohealtdiseasBiomedical Technology Research and ResearchResearch Infrastructure: DResources: A large network of Biomedical Techhelp build, expand, and strengthen the natnology Resource Centers provides the researcomedical research elent by developingtionwide with thety capacitymost advanced technologies and techniquesthat award doctoraUstscollaborthe health or health-related sciences; improvingdisciplinary invedbiomedical and behavioral research through anpplystruction and renovation of research facilitiesaddition, NCRR provides institutional grantsd increasing compehase expensive state-of-the-art and highfrom states with limited NIh suppoend instrumentation to be used by a number ofinvestigators on a shared basisand resource- related fundinClinical research resourcesa natiethe National Center for Research Resources webResearch csiteathttp://www