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Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirements in the Context of the Broader Socio technic

Human-Computer Interaction, New Developmentsprovided Following this, a summary of the software development pand the differennd HCI is then provided Proposed HCI methodological requirements are then specifiedwork analysis methoddentifying an overall integrated HCI design approach This is followed by an examinationf certain practical challenges facing HCl practioners In so doing, the author will considcommercial, technical and organisational constraintsThe HCi methadoneunlined in this chapter may be of interest to HCI researchersnks between HCI theory and methods The specific HCI research methodology proposedd related discussion of practical issues is also relevant to HCI researchers working witlttingsFurther, the specific user requirements gathering methods examined, may be ofinterest to Software Developers and/or Business Analystsal Frameworks and Methodological Implicationsis well established in the HCI literature that technologyns either fail, or do not1988, 1993 and Preece, 2002)

Perhaps this seembvious pointHowever, defining the nature of the task, and envisioning new or improvetask must be explored on a number of levels This links to certain theoretical modelsg the relationship between process, task and technology design, and specificthe relationship between operator task performance and tools and information flow designportantly, an investigation of these models suggests certain methodological requirementsdesignrder to understand the methodological requirements for technology designtechnical settings, we must first understand the nature of socio-technical systerthey perform A 'socio-technical system' is defined as any instantiation oftechnical elements engaged in goal directed behaviour In place of a formal dengineering psychologists have proposed a range of characteristics to describe theseuncertain data, mediated interaction via19993 Basic Concepts socio-technical SystemsThe definition of a number of basic concepts in socio-technical systems he,d y Hocertain aspects of the

Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirementsstructured interviews focused on understanding andting current work practices andsupporting technology(Hackos et al, 1998) Thisethnographic research methods,advanced in the Social Science field (eg Interviews and Observationona s without theThese techniques aim to represent the cognition, practice or logiche task In addition theto identifyapping user tasks and workflows to a set of interfacewith a defined informationFollowing this, a more detailed storyboard is modelled Detailed storyboards include roughgns that corresponadvisory information relating to user interface design This includes InternationalOrganisation for Standardisation(SO)user interface design approacheSO, 1995, 1997), and usability design principles/heuristics (Nielsen, 1993, Preece et alIng pdeleteThis links to theimplementation Asign phase, as opposed to theementation phase Different kindsprototypingpropriastages of design Once ththe prototypes arealuated In HCI desigluation is part of the design process Evaluation is part of the design process

Feedbackobtained about the usability of designs via inspection, testing or enquiry This is an iterativprocess, Evaluation occurs at different points in the development process, The goals ofevaluation are multiple and varied Evaluation can be used to investigate what users want,and whtest out design ideas/ concepts quickly and to assess the usability of a UI and improve theation methodsdThis includes(1)user2) heuristic evaluation, User testing involves the assessment ofinterface(Un)bobserving representativerforming representative tasks using the UI(Rubin, 1994)This is used to identify any aspects of a design that cause users difficulty, confusion,misunderstandcomplete the tasks for which the UI is designed User testing also provides insight into ueferences In addition, a heuristic evaluation may be conducted In a Heuristic Evaluationis examined against a set of agreed usability /user experience principles (theheuristics) This is undertaken by a team of experienced usability professionals(thealuators) As such, the evaluationvaluatorthe shoes of the prospective end user- taking into account their profital models of the task, typical learning styles and task requirements Following iterativeprototyping and evaluation, high fidelity prototypes are developed by software developersFormal hci mbeen the subject of much debate in the HCI literature Specificchallenges hafrom the fields of Ethnography and Participatory Desi

Human-Computer Interaction, New DevelopmentsEthnographers argue that classical Hods do not take work practice seriously; failingaddress the social aspects of work(Hutchins 1995, Viinterviews cannot provide actual insight into real work practices Participatorye questioned themethods(Bodker and Buur, 2002) Specifically, they have challenged the instructitraditional user and task analysis outputs for design guidance Also, they argue thatesting provides insufficient information concerning user problems Further, PD theoriststhodsystems and ubiquitous technology (Bodker and Buur, 2002)The field of participatory design od in scandinavia in the1970smandates that workers should be involved in the dtechnology This heralded the introduction of new HCI methodologiepioneered in the Utopia Project(Bodker, 1985) Central to PD theory is the idea thaingineers design endas opposed to'for them Accordingthe traditional ho(eg Usabilityengineers and Graphic Designers)is broadened to include endorkers and workerd domain experts Crucially, PD theory stresses therelationship between dand evaluation pd theoristsk tools, design teams must first experience and evaluate future technology and practi(Bannon, 1991, Muller 2003)

As such, PD techniques (such as, the ceevaluation of prototypes andying), allow design teams tod related technologies, without the constraints ofcurrent practice Overall PD techniques have been adapted from Ethnography This includesrises,story collecting and story telling( through text,photography and drama), games of analysis and design and the co-creation of descriptived functional prototypese PD contention that users must be active participants in the design process, (and relatedframeworks) reflects certain underlying phenomenological conceptionsas are sought Thus, itppropriate for human factors researchers to formulate design models in advance ofcollaboration with end users In this respect, PD theorists argue that therealong which participation could be measured This includes:(1) the directnessthe design process, ( 3)theof participation in the overall system being designed and (4) the degree of controldesign decisionCritical to PD methodology is the envisionment of future work situations According to PDe the experience of being in the futproximatet in order tocomment on the advantagthe proposed system As argued by Bannon, some form of mock-up or prototype needs tobuiltuation might為91) This allrs to experience how emerging designs may affect work practproposes abased design approach(2000, 2001) This links to thedevelopment of persona's and task scenarios, used in formal HCI approaches Thispproach distinguishes the development of existing task scendescribing currentpractice), and future task scenarios (or future use scenarios) According to Carroll, future

Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirements23tive descriptions of a future task state Thisparticipatory design techniques of imagining future work procedescribed above) Further, it relates to Carrolls concept of thelifecycle For Carroll, the task artefact cycle is the backdevelopment (2000, 2001) Possible courses of design andment must be envisionedd evaluated in terms of their impacts on human activity(before they are pursued) If-If(eg model what is),theFurther, the application of participant observation methods developed in the Social Sciencealso been proposed Thenvironmental constraints, Thisf the actual work reality These methods have been stHutchins, it is through Ethnography that we gain knowledge about how a distributedsystem actuallks(1995)7 Overview of Methods Used in Organisational Ergonomics FieldsHCI methodsecific work analysismethods used in the organisational ergonomics domain

This includes Process Mapping andbusiness process modelling (eg modelling 'as is andfuture processes"), with the objectiveof improving efficiency and quality Process mapping involves the production of aesentationhe overalltial and parallel task activities of both htdtechnical agents, which collectively result in the achievement of the operational goal Thisproach originates in the research of Gilbreth and Gilbreth (1921) Underlying this visualIts, process dependencies), as a social system (stem(etransformation of informationdifferent technical and humanmapping is conducted in a workshop format involving all relevant stakelnvolved in the operational process First, the researcher reviews the high level proothen drills down to chart the related task activities of different roles As part of thistrouble-shooting related to identifying existing process problems andsign7 2 Cognitive Work AnalysisVicente argues that in dynamic work settings, therede the individualffecting their interactions with computer systems and these factors must be considered inthe design of such systems(1999) In this regard, Vicente contends that to understand workdemands both cognitive and environmental constraints must be considered Vicente

Human-Computer Interaction, New Developmentsis based on rastgument thattermines to alarge extent the operator constraints and the ability of the operator to choose hfirst(Vicente, 1999) To this entive work analysis (CWA)methodology to analyse workThis includes both task and work domain analysis CWA consists of five concepts andrresponding analysis This includes,(1)an analysis of the boundaries and restrictionsk,(3)organisational and co-ordination and (5), an analysis of worker competencies Thised to diverse work situationsprocess control/automaticof collabctivity and hiclosed systems It is argued that (1)the modelling of task activity and (2 the envisionment,design and evaluation of improved task suppotextsa rangeccount the methodological requirements outlined earlier, it is suggested that HCImarchers adopt a mix of methodolssociated with two of the three human factorsnamely Cognitive Ergonomics and Organisational Ergonomics, Specificintegration of formal HCI methods, informal HCI methods and both process mapping andognitive work analysis methods is proposed Typically, HCI practioners working in socio-of both formal and informal hci methods further certainsuch as Cognitive Work Analysis have been applied by HCIpractioners Other methods such as process mapping methods have not been usedExisting HCI methods do not support an analysis of the relationship between task, processnd technology requirements Specifically, to design operational technologies, HCIesearchers must understand how existing and future technologies relate to the designthe existing process and/orProceThe introdmplications for broader task practice(e

g task practice of other agents) and the design ofle,slation from the broader pidalysing task perforistinguisherspectives on task activityI)the specificpective and (2) the broader system perspective (eg takesbroader operational and organisational aspects of task perfboth perspectives relate, this is not a real distinction However, this distinction is usefulfrom an analytic perspective The individual perspective ferms of unique roles Here we consider the overall task picture, how taskstas(eg difference between SOPctualerequirements, use of tools and environmental constraints Critically, thisprioritises the task requirements of the individual operator The system perspectivenvestigates task performance on two other levels- the operational level and the

Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirementsel The operational level takes into account collaboration with otted task information inputs and outputs As sueperspective on task activity - factoring team collaboration requirements into taskThis links to the computer supportedre work frameworks proposed by Bannor1991)and others The organisational level examines task performance in terms of thoseprocesses in the organisation that support task performance For example, training, safetyexisting operational process and envisage future processes andrequirements Also, interviews and observations can be usedlevantFormal HCi design methods do not support thesociated technology requirements To this end, informal HCI methods are required It isargued that participatory design methods facilitate technologyconcrete design instruCollaborative prototyping of proposed tool coboth the researcher and participants tosociated technology requirements Further, these techniques enable practioners to elicitfeed back relating to the usability of future technology concepts-therebrthetask artefact lifecycle Crucially, the application of these methods results in the advancementanslated into actual user interface features and behaviours Prototypes can be used asbasis for exploring, evaluating and communicating design ideas Indeedparticipants to fully envisage and evaluate design ideas, without such prototypesind desigtons,presentation of fa design consensus is reached

Further, certain visual and interaction issues require hands-Iving In this way, research does not stop short of concrHowever, as a stand-alone methodology, participatory research methods are insufficient Tointerpret and weight participant opinions related to specific design solutions, the researchermust be familiar with the existing problem space As such, naturalistic research methodseg interviews and observations) are a necessary precursor to PD methodsBoth HCI methods and organisational analysis methods do not facilitatets it iskshop methods are adapted to this purpose The specifimethodolothis is outlined in subsequent sections9 Proposed metal Approach Case Study Exampleshetegrated HCi design mintoof designsteps at different points in the user centred design preThe specific steps proposeelate to HCI research onlyFurther, certainnd on the project context It is recommended that practionerspurpose, taking into account relevant projectonsiderations ok, relevant to themance requirements of the wider softwareelopmentded to in terms of dependencies with HCl work, but not describedterms of actual steps This includes the production of the graphic design, the specification

Human-Computer Interaction, New Developmentsfunctional requirements, software development, software testing, softintegratietesting, trial implementation of proposed systems and full implementationptionRMethodsOutputLiReviewReportcontext underlyingkisting existing processollow up observationstakeholder3RequiredObservationtask practice and tooth different Procedural workflowperational rolesUser testing reportIser and task analy4n Advancement of futureand associated Prelitanology briefof Prototypes(optional)requirementsork Required Process workshops (future FutureTechnology envisicrequirementstechnologiesCollaborative prototyping High level papercollaborative prototypingbiotypesproposedpartworkshopimplications

Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirementsthe Context of the Broader Socio-technical SystemManagement review and decisionsDescriptionMethodsnd evaluationevaluation (if required)Research Requiredalysis and weightingquirementFurtherPrototypingFurther prototypingrface designrequirementsUser Interface DesignUpdated processHandover to Software RequiredDevelopers GraphicDesignersprototypes and relevantdocumentationProduction of graphic designHandover of graphic design to software developersare developmentSoftwaren personreview sessionuation of High Optionalser testingregulatory Certification reportEvaluation with authoritiesIntegration with other software systems and hardwarentation of new systems in organisationull implementation of new systems in organisationOngoing feedback and Optionaloperational rolesTable 1

Summary of Proposed HCI Methodology Associated Steps, Methods andEach of these std the application ofof these studies is coongoingBefore presenting the proposed the design steps for thHCI design

Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirements3expumber of basic socio-technical concepts is providedThe operational goal refers to the purpose of the operation or the state of affairs to bechieved(eg safe andecessary to the achievement of the goal and a specific endwhich marks ther structure of Plishment of the operational goal The operational prdefines the logicork or task activities between different humanrall timeline for this (eg sequencing of tasks) An operational process can be dividedinto a number of sub processes Typically, this includes a planning process and the activeaInk totechnical and human resources in pl

ace) This work is undertaken in the planning phaserk is executed The operational processconceptualized in relation to a series of process gates (or critical pprocess) At each pthat the processan moveforward Overall, the collective accomplishment of iu gents,rk ateach of these process gates, results in the achievement of the operational goal

The procstate refers to the status of the process at any point in time, in relation to the achievement oftwo differensub process and the active operations sub process process dependencies also includethis could be the relationship between the active flight operation, and the i ght operation,ed but differperational plan describes how the operational goal will be achieved from an orgperspective This includes a definition of what hund technicalurces will be usedat different points in the operation It also includes any regulatory requirements to bedhered to Certain brational objective is achieved in a safe, efficient and legalThis includes thement of a range of organisational functidocumentation management, training, human resources, safety management and risknumber of operational agentsThis includes human and technicaln the system Technicalurces denotes both thetools used by operator to perform their tasks (eg procedures, paper tools, IT systems), andall relevant technology (eg machines or systems) required to aclthe opIn socio-technical systems, tth human and technical resoubeted in similardividual units of workdescribed in termstasks, as definedAinsworth, a task is'a set pattern of operations, which alone, or together with other tasks,be used to achieve the goal(1992) Task performance is the enactment of the relevanttask in time and sitechnical and non technical tasks Technito specific physical tasks undertakenn order to achieve the operational goal Typically these tasks are described in company

4Human-Computer Interaction, New Developmentsoperating procedures documentation Non technical tasks denote the cognitiveal aspects tasks that underlie technical task performance This incht, decision making taskn anddination Oftenot defineractice does not necessarily follow the task descriptions provided in company SOP, Asuch, SOP task descriptions should not be read as definitiveterms of a hierarchy (eg task, sub-task and actions) Depending on thelexity of theask, the task mightduped into a number ofsteps or sub-tasks A sub-taskreflects a grouping of related actions, which form an overall step in a task Ano the smallest unit of activity Actionassociated with hles, machines/ tools andlecting a control on an information display or panel)and non technical activitytechnical activity incge of cognitive (e g, attending to informaticecision making) and social functions (e

g communicatingrdinating with otherto relationships between tasks (both technical and non technicalsk, or producingch others tasks) at different points in timethroughout theTwo types of task dependencies can be distinguished This includesor oral dependencies and parallel dependencies, Prior dependencies refer totask activitidted task outputs performed by the same or other operators, whichtwethis, Firstly taskperformance must be considered in terms of task completion The task needs to bepleted, so that the processontinue In the exampleflight operation, theCaptain must obtain technical signoff of aircraft, before proceeding to close the doors andHowever, at a certain point in the operational timeline, tasks become mandatory frty perspecsO, the quality of task performaust bebe performed, but the quality of task perfomay be weakbriefinggt in flight can have a knock on effectperformance at a later point in flight Parallel dependencies concern work undertaken inIn socio-technical systems, human actors are assignedThisdofperational goal Certain actors may have the samole, but perform different tasksased on their rank or seniority Further, in team work situations, a number of actors maytask or different tasks, either in sequence or inparallel These actors might have similar roles and ranks, or similar roles and differentaskdirectly involved in the task)and the(2)supporting roles(contributes or provides inputsbut is not directly responsible for the task) The supporting role might include actors withsimilar role to the active role, or with different roles Importantly, the supportingtime As succonsider how the actions of other agents relate to primary role actions

Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirements5the Context of the Broader Socio-technical SystemTask performance often requires the use of different types of tools A number of definitionsf toolssupports task performance- either directly indirectly From a workplacermtool refers to a range of entities- both real and abstract-which are used to perfotasks or to assist in the performance of tasks This includes paper based informationa task or procedure, checklists etc), machinesanical machines, simple computer systemsystemseg memory, mental models, expermethodologies and so forth) In this respect, workplace tools can be physical(eg paperDols or IT systems) or non physicalbest practice methods or expertiseworkplace tools allow operators to perform tasks that are difficulsiblecertain physical and or cognitive limitations For example, tools can provide a mechanicalertake certainognitive abilities(Norman, 1988, 1993) Certain ypesoraoe and in particular extend ar-ability to complete difficult cognitive tasks (eg processing largt to thenformation to the operator or the operatorels of information This ranges frombendingautomation provided

Depending on the task and tool design,hysical tools=stems(eg such as aviation and process control), operators interact with a rangesk toolsmplete a task In this instance, the range of part task tools formtools which taken collectively support task performance From a task performancesystems or tools is critical (Wickens, 2000)24 Socio-technical Systerories& Methodological ImplicationWhat is the nature of socio-technical system performance? How do the elements of a socio-technical system relate? Further,t are the implications of socio-technical systemlanced in relation to the overall elements of a socio-technical system Collectively, theseheories build on the basic conception of a socio-technical system as containing three overallelements This includes the social system, the technical system and the environment Thisfollows from the socio-technical models of Pasmore(1988)and Trist(1981) Further, it linksis the contention that there is a relationship betweeional and organisationalm(McDonald, 2004, 2006) Specific theories highlight the importance ofof organisational performance This includes the role and organisthat underlie task performg communication anddination) Further, theoriespint to the gap between formal processes and actual operator task practices The

Human-Computer Interaction, New Developmentsmplication of these theories is that design methodologies should allow fortechnology concepts should be embedded in a broader system model In particular, futuretake into account the relationship between task and proceThis includes both operational and organisational processestheoretical frameworks have been proposed tocomputer systems, in the context of socio-technical systeminformation flow theothese theories can be interpreted as suggesting certainmethodological requirements for HCI practionerstask performance Further, such theories emphasize thehichftenl ves collaboration with otherd technical agents The implication of these theories is that prophould allow the researcher to understand how tools and informatione Further, methodologies might facilitate the identification of information flowents linked to the task performance of all releam agents-both human andrelation to task performance, HCI theories refer to the task problem to be solved or theuse provide a means to solve the taskIn this respect, HCI theoriroll and Bannon) argue the specificgorkflow and level of complexity)Norman(1993) uses the term'cognitiveartefacts to describe those tools that given their design (e g task representational qualitiesCarroll(2000, 2001), there of the task furthehange the nature of the operational process (Mc Donald2004) Carroll,s(2000, 2001)concept of the task artefact lifecycle is relevant here

Newtechnology requirements cannot be premised on existing task practices and associatedblems alone carrolld tasktechnology might be usedthe task In identifying future technologyuirements, the researcher must balance two task pictures This includes the existing taskerformance picture and the potentialtaskpicture, facilitated by theintroductpingt in isolation As noted by Wickens(2000), individual displays supporting partm Rather, the wider toolselated to dthe range of tools used by different operators This is no easyre of onent processes in socio-technical contexts This includes processes related tonformation gathering, information interpretation, information classification and

Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirements7nication and informatiobehaviour and asted informationprioritise key user information and facilitate information sharing with all relevant human甲hmnts involved in the task activity Further, it is well documented that theess and presentation As such, methods should allow the researchersuch issues so thatendly design solutions3 Introduction toan Factors Human computer InteractioThe International Ergonomics Association(IEA)defines Ergonomics (orThe scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactionsig humans and othermize human well-being and overall system performance(2000)The IEA distinguish three domains of specialization within the discipline of ergonomics:onal ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of socio-technical syas 5ePhysical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomical, anthropometric, physiologicd biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity Cognitive ergonomicswith mental procesand other elementstheir organizational structures, policies and processes3

2 Humannteractiinteraction is a multi-disciplinary subject focused on the design of humariendly technology Different definitions of HCl have been provided In certain definitionsICI is regarded as a subset of Human Factors concentrating on the design and evaluation ofchile in others it described in similar termscomplicated by the fact that the term HCI is often used interchangeably with EngineeringPsychology,,'Cognitive Ergonomics'andFactors’ In this andered as a sub-set of theomethodologies within HFwith the designevaluation of technology for use in the context of both open and closed systems Inds of human factors definedg to HCI theorists andfriendly technology which fitsdefines a range of methods for this Collectively, these methods emphasize: (1)thens are prototyped and evaluated and the modified and evaluated again)nd 3)the extent to which evaluation providesempirical basisevaluate/justify designs

Human-Computer Interaction, New Developments4 Software Devnent ProcessHCI methodeadopted in the context of develosoftware/technologiesfollowing project goals and timelines This process is referred to as the softwareess follows a number of high levelding,(1specifying user requirements, (2) specifying functional requirements, (3)applicationlevelopment,(4)testing, (5)trials and(6) full implementation Critically, a range of HCIprototypes, evaluating prototy pes etc) at various points in this procThe software development pation of a number of different typesty requirements, User requirements refer to whnge of diffesers) System requirements refer to what theactually does(egst of functions that the system performs and analysis of each function) User interfacelesign requirements refer to what the user interfaceook and feel liked heill interact with different system functions, Finally usability requirements refer to thedifferent levels Depending on the level of specification(e

g requirements stated in the formless design instruction is providedInterface Designers and Software Developers Evidently, both user requirements and usernterface design requirements must be specified at a sufficiently concrete level so that (1nts)linking to application development and (2) Graphic and Interaction DesignIce the full interaction and visual design model According to participatory designne of the weaknesses of formal HCl methods, is that typical outputs(e g liststasks, task analysis diagrams, task scenarios and so forth), fail to providesufficient design guidance This is discusseddetail, later in this chapterign Methodological Challengeswhat should HCl design methodologies achieve? How should the range of HCImethodologiesHCI design practioners in terms of envisioning new or improved workargued that HCi de3 Envisionment of new tool requirements associated task practicesspecification and evaluation of proposed user interfaceimproved tool conceptsFacilitation of communication ofrequirements and design concepts to Software DevelopersGraphic Designers

Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirements951 The Development of an Appropriate Task ModelFirstly, HCI design methods should allow for the development of an appropriate taskoth existing task practice and future task practiIn relatiethe femethodologies should assist the following:1 Modelling actual task practice, taking intont different oper2 Modelling operbetween task and process (eg design of both operational process andbackground organizational processethe both technical and non technical5 Modelling information flow requirements(e

g, information in an out and how this is facilitated by theand technicalterms of future task practice, methods should allow the researcher to identify how task practicegiven new technologDesign methods should also allow the researcheruse of existing tools anddesign constraints might be ameliorated by rethinkinProposed HCI design methods shouldfor the identification ofassociated operational processes based on the task model and evaluation of existingtools Critically, the resulting tools should represent an improvement on the existingtuation This may involve the envisionment ofprocesses along with newAs such, the design methods should allow for both process and taskproblemsthe task artefact lifecycle( Carrol000, 2001), such methodst allow the researcher to evaluate the future use situationassociated tool concepts Importantly, new designs should not inherit the weaknessesHCi problems5 4 Specification and Evaluation of Tool ConceptsFurther, design metshould facilitate the prototypingonceptsbridging the gap between requirements specification and design Also methods shouldtasks and conceptual models Further methods should allow researchers to assess whetherperformance and environmental constraints are factored into the proposed HCIsolutionTool Concepts& Associaterequirements are achievable First the researcher must consider feasibility in term

Human-Computer Interaction, New Developmentsexisting organisational structures and roles, resource capacity and redesign requirementsTo this end, methods should facilitate the identification of the task/perlequirements embedded in the proposed technology design, and whether this requiresbarrieting work practices For example,epts may requirecommunication or sharing of information between different roles or departments Certaindditionool functionality (eg the provision of task suditional work effort/hn resources Does therganisation have the capacity for this? Can new functions be incorporated in existing roles,yees required? What are the training implicationscontexts often links to the design of technologies used by other roles in thearticular, the pito specific endactivities necessitates information sharing across the different human and technical agentsork activity

As such, methodologies should assist researchers indentifying the relevant information integration requirements inherent in the proposedncepts Further, proposed methods shedditional technology requirements linked to the task performance of other operationaldles, wported by existing tools56DevelopDesigadopted, can be utilized by Software Developers, in terms of specifying the functionalreover, the outputs need to be instructive in termsspecifying theterface design reqents formanaged by the Graphic Design team6 Overview of Hcl MethodsDo HCI methodologies facilio high level sets of methods, narmethods In general, formal methods are characterized as being closer to scientific methodsinformal methods are strongly linked to design activitiesnsidered to6Formal methods in HCI allow for user involvement at specific points in the softwareFirst, a task analysis is conducted, to understand how the operator interacts with thesystemoperator is required to do, in terms of actions or cognitive processes, fo achtieve a system goalUsually, this occurs at the beginning of a project and takes the form of structured