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Humanitarian Demining the Problem Difficulties Priorities Demining Technology and the Challenge for Robotics

itarian Demining: Innovative Solutions and the challenges of Technologaround the world; among these, there are more than 650 types of AP mines Most AIof the following four categories: blast, fragmentdirectional, and bounding devices These mines range from very simple devices to hightechnology (OMalley, 1993; US Department of State, 1994) AP minefields are scatteredwith at mines to prevent the use of armored vehicles to clear them quickly theproduction costs of AP mines are roughly between 1 and 30 USS while some arthedepending on themine infected area and the number of the generated false alarms)b) ATgnificantly larger with a weight of several kilburied at depths of up to 30 cm below the surfaceand designed to immobilize or destroy vehicles and theIpants The high triggerprevents them from being set off by infantry More modern AT mines use shapedto cut throughenable it to detonnot touch it Atbe scattered with AP mines to make clearing them manually more time-suming Some anti-tank mine types are also able to be triggered by infantry, givingwith tripyP and at minefielduble-stacked at mines, APunder ates and breakwires, and fuses separated from mines have all been used for thiseks or months

Conventional landmines around theorld do not have self-destructive mechanism and theyandmines are fabricated from sophisticated non -metallic materials Even more efforts that isadicalelop mines capable of sensing the direction and type of threat Theseill also be able to be turned on and off, employing their own electronic countermeasuresen recognized in having minefields with self-healing behavior Such minefields willce andembedding them withbility to detect breachd simple mobility tochange its location accordingly New, smaller, lightweight, more lethal mines are nonent of self-destructing AT and AP minefieldsbury theMines can be laby specialized mine-laying launchers on vehicles In addition, mine-scattering shellsbefired by artillery from a distanceal tens of kilometers furthermoredropped from through both rotary and fixed-wing aircraft, or ejected from cruise missilesUnited Nation Department of Human Affairs (UNDHA)100mithate world and pose significant hazardshan 68 countries that need to be cleared (O'Malleyghts, 1993; US Department of State, 1994; King, 1997; Habib, 2002b) Additionalceeding 100 million mines are held in over 100 nations, and 50 of these nationsg a further 5 millionry year Currently, there are 2 to 5 millionsof new mines continuinghe annual rate of clearance is f

tarian Demining the Problem, Difficulties, Pnorities, Demining Technology anddemining(mainly in tropicaloften poses major difficulties to the demining efforts The vegetation removal can take sAubstantial fraction of the time and for this there is a need to prosignedthe time required for demining In theirform, vegetationtters consist of adequately modified commercial devices(e

g agricultural tractors withhedge cutterscavators) Thean urgent need for effective vegetation clearancetechnology and techniques that avoid detonating mFiExamples of available vegetalCost effective and efficient clearance techniques and mechanisms(flexible and modularized)for clearing both landminegetation have been identified as a significeed by the

itarian Demining: Innovative Solutions and the challenges of Technologimportant to highlight the importance to extract thnd potential cost-efficiency In order to enhance the possibility of a successful usage oferstanddemining machine by its operational environment and ecological needs This would includefactors of topography, soil, ordnance type and machine Furthermore, there is urgent needto standardized method of recording mechanical clearance data(GICHD, 2004)and set upproper benchmarks for evaluations, testings and risk assessment63 Mine Detection and sensing TechnologieMine detection represents the most important step of the demining process, and the qualityof false alarm The probabialse alarm rate is directly proportional to the time and cose effective detectietechnology that speed up the detection process, maximreduce false alarm rate, improve the ability to positively discriminate landmines from otherburied dummy objects and metallic debris, and enhance safety and protection for deminersIn addition thered to have simple, flexible and friendlyion that allowssafe operation without the needhe strength of sensing technologies with efficient mathematical, theoretic approaches andtechniques for analyzing complex incoming signals from mine detectors to improve minehe performance of the equipment through ththe limitations of any detection device and technology with regard to the location, climate,ally important besides preparing the required operational andmaintenance skills

It is inesently in varying stages of development Each has its own strength and weaknesses Thed set of testing facilities atconditions clIn addition the verificatiut at the real minefield site thisunder actual field conditions for the purpose to specify benefits and limitations of differentethods while fulfilling certain benchmark requirements The work must be performedn with endtheof the equipment while real deminers should carry out thtest at a realevelopments are consistent withsessing the availability, suitability, and affordability of technology with enablingn tools that enable theseevaluations The benchmarking is going to enhance the performance levels that enable thedevelopment of relent, systems and algorithmssensitivity and/or operational complexities Methods of detecting mines vary from, simpn technology but exhaustive searching by humans using some combination of metal

tarian Demining the Problem, Difficulties, Pnorities, Demining Technology andand manual probing, to a variety of high biological and electronic techning metal by utilizinginduce eddy-currents in the object, which in turn generate a detectablemagneticfield Old landmines contain metal parts(eg the firing pin), but modern landmines containvery small amounts or no metal at allIncreasing the sensitivity of metal detector to detect smaller amounts of metal resulsensitive to soils with high ferrous content or metal debrisnes andbe located metal detectorsnomalies in the ground without providing information about whether an explosive agent isaterial by smell using a dog (Sieber, 1995)

Trained dogs are the best knownut they need excessive training and inherently unreliable because theyditions,and have only 50-60%accurding the behaand capabilities of animals, insects and other living creatures,along with close collaboration between biopportunities for enhancing, genetically manipulating, and creating new capabilitiesthrough mimicry and inspiration, developing biosensors through the integration of livingponents, such as, genetically engineered bacteria, plants, etc and thedirect use of complex biological systetc: with focus tothroughout the pif humanitarian dDetection techniques, for buried low-metal landmines that are in development can begrouped into three main categories: sensors that detect the landmine explosives or chemicalsthat are associated with the explosives; sensors that recognize an image of the landminethrough scattering, and sensors that detect anomalies at the surfall of these sensors are affected to some degree by soil conditionsdetectors(EMI), Infrared Imaging, Ground-Penetrating Radar(GPR),Accoupling, Acoustic Imaging, Thermal Neutron Activation (TNA), PhotoacousticSpectroscopy, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance(NQR), Xmography, Neutron Backscattering, Biosensors, Commercial sniffers, etc(Healy Webber, 1993; Van Westen, 1993;Hewish Ness, 1995; Sieber, 1995; McFee, 1996; Cain Meidinger, 1996: Habib, 2001a,Mine detectionthe slowest compowithin the deng procesently,that has the capability to attain goodof detectionfor the available AP mines while having a low false alarm rate under various types of soil,all types of mines, naturaground clutters, etc If orfalse alarm, could two sensking togebetter job? The idving twopport systems with advanced signal processing techniques is attractive and is advocatedby many as a fruitful line of development Hence, there is a need to use complementary

itarian Demining: Innovative Solutions and the challenges of Technologgies and to dburied items for thepurpose to reduce false alarm rates and to overurrent landmine detection limitationdifferentechnologies reacting to different physical characterdemining is the ability to distinguish fragments or stones from the tarSensor fusion using soft computing methods such as ftneural networks andough set theory must be further explored and computalmbining sensory data must be designed These methodsassess the quality of the mined area once the mines have bee64 Robotized solution for mine detection and cleMany efforts have been recognized to develop effective multional mode robots fothe purpose to offer flexible, modular, reliable, cheap and fast solutions for the deminingions The development and implementation of robotics in mine and UXO clearanceing physical contact with theof danger in mined area, improve accuracy, helreduction, increase productivity anance effectiveness of repetitive tassuch as, probing/ prodding, searching patter with sensors, digging, sifting, vegetationetc

Solving this problem presents challenges in robotic mechanics and mobilidel of success research inobots is still at the early stages In their current status, they lack flexibility and yet theepresentstly solution fnce operation But, if designed and applied at theelopment: teleoperated machines, multifunctional teleoperated robot,demining service robots, and unmanned aerial vehicles7 Solutions and priThe priorities for research and development in the field of humanitarian demining requiretrategies that require to start with the following needsa) Develop reliable and accurate techniques/technologies thaterformance of the demining process and allow efficient area df minefields There is an urgent need to recognize and reliablyminefields andsolate them by defining proper signs and limits to make the publicand tob) Have quality-training programs that fit the needs ofnhance the safety of deminers by providing them with suitable protective clothing,pols and equipment and isolate them as possible from direct physical contact with themines and UXOs

tarian Demining the Problem, Difficulties, Pnorities, Demining Technology andd) Enhance the perfoce of theand the deminers, To achieve this, thereth advance level of data fusion and signal processingorithms that can confirm the detection in real-time and lead to the identification ofnine parameters needed for the next actionequired in difficult and physically constraint enviroterrain, residential, etc )although such approach is slow andfor thebe integrated with vehicle-based platforms topport automatic mine clearance in open areaf Use information and communication technologies with aim to enhance contact,arch, planning and to share resud data among alect and mark mines without having toh) Develop simple, modular, efficient, compact and low cost mechanical machines forclearance that suit the target task and environment aiming to unearth miliably and efficientle a means of moving themechanize detectand to improve the safety of thetrough the use of efficient, reliable and cost effective humanitarian mineaction equipment(such as robots, flexible and intelligent mechanisms, etc ) that haveronmental impact

It is necessary to have a robot with efficientmodularized surface locomotion and mobility that is well adapted to unstructurederability, stability, speed, and the ability to overcome obstacles Suchrobots sre decision-making capability to locate, marktralize individualdualIn order to approach a proper and practical solutions for the problem, there is a need for theentists in each discipline and dto share their knowledge, and the result of theirexperience and experiments in order to design and test viable solutions for humanitarianmining without ruling out any possible technology or techniquTechnologies to be developed should take into account local resources and the facts thalany of the demining operators will have had minimal formtries where the equipment is to be used have poor technological infrastructure foruipment maintenance, operation, and deployment The resultant system must beust be flexible and modular to address a variety of clesks and for case-by-casescenarios Furthermore, the logistical support of the equipment must be consistent withcountr

itarian Demining: Innovative Solutions and the challenges of Technolog8 Robotics andg: The ChallengtsThe portable handheld mine detection approach to sensor movement is slow andthe individual deminers, armored vehiclespeopleunityoperated systenRemote control of most equipment is quite feasible However, the benefit of men a remotde whether the anticipated reduction in risk to the operator justifies the atnd possible reduca cost analyhould be made to determine to whatalidby improving productivity and accuracy, andto increase safety of demining operations and personnel, there is a need for an efficientmine actioobility, and some level of decision making capabilities Such equipment should haveck to locate and mark individualsuitable modularized mechanized structure and well adapted to local conditions ofthe safetypersonoductivity and flexibility Robotics solution can range from modular components thatclearing vehicle tomote-controlled device, to prodding toolsrobotic arm, and to mobile vehicles with arrays of detection sensors and areamine-clearance devices

The targeted robot should have the capability to operate in multiodes It should be possible for someone with only basic training to operate the systemRobots can speedup the clearance process when used in combination with handheld minedetection tools, and they are going to be useful for quick verification and quality control Tofacilitate aPce in the demining process, there is a need to emploechanized systems that are able to remove obstructions that deter manual and canindisturbing soil Solving this problem presents challengesRobotics research requires the successful integration of a number of disparate technologiesa) Flexible mechanics and modular structures,b) Mobility and behavior based control architectureHuman support functionalities and interaction,d)hintegration and data fusion,aspect of fasttonomoussemi-autorus navigation in a dynamic andunstructured environment,f)Planning, coordination, and cooperation among mtg)Wireless connectivity and natural communicationhumans)Virtual reality0) Machine intelligence, computation intelliged advanced signal palgorithms and techniques

tarian Demining the Problem, Difficulties, Pnorities, Demining Technology andFurthermore, thethe productivity of overaThe possible introduction of robots into demining processd marking, speeding-up detectinrealizationapplying service robot's technologies and techniques must be justified by the benefits itdes There is no doubt that one of the major benefits would be the safety, by removingIt is clear that the development of a unique and universalnd different terrain and environmental conditions to meet demining requirements issimple task In the short term, it appears that the best use of robotics will be as mobilers anmine clearance deviceslimited too, because their remoteme dou bts whethechthis is particularly true forurbanormally full of rubble, while agriculturalto be better, but that is notalways true a possible idea in using robots for demining is to design a series of simple andcapable of performing one of the elementary operations thate required to effectively clear a minefield An appropriate mix of such machines should beeachning task, keeping in mind that it is very unlikely that the wholeevironment to be dealt with is so hostile that no autonrobot has any chance to beused in mid and shortThe effort devoted to robotic solutions would be more helpftif it is directedequipment improvements and low-cost robotic devices to provideome useful in-effectiveness in the short to medium termeveral practical difficulties in using robots for mine clearance have been highlighted(Treveylan, 1997)

There is little value in a system that makes life safer for the operator buthich will be less effective at clearing the groundnalysis should be done aleith having efficient design and techniques The high costnd sophisticated technology used in rewhichoperate and maintain themtional factors limiting the possibilities of using robots forhumanitarian demining In spite of this, many efforts have been recognized to developfective robots for the purpose to offer cheap and fast solution(Nicoud Machler, 1996)lying robotics technology for the mine clearance prto specifyirements for a robot to haveuirements include mechanismorithms, functions and userobot that will not easily detonatay,ie,to apply ground pressure that will not exceeds the threshold that sets off thminiNgecause groundis what disturbs the ground and triggersmany landmines If a doehicle is to safely traa minefield, it must exert

tarian Demining the Problem, Difficulties, Pnorities, Demining Technology andThe international Committee of the Red Cross(ICRC)estimatesthe casualty rate fromcurrently exceeds 2It is estind thaare killed and 1, 200 maimed each month by landmines around the world(ICRC,996a; ICRC, 1996b; ICRC, 1998) The primary victims are unarmed civilianslandmine survivors Survivors face terrible physical, psychologicalnd inhibiting the use of land for produ

ction while requiring extensive healthcare andrehabilitation For example, in Angola one of every 334 individuals is a landmine amputeeia has more than 25,000 amputees due toblasts(Rosengard et aL, 2001)The direct cost of medical treatment and rehabilitationds USS750 million

This figureis very small compared to the projected cost of clearing the existingd subject people life to a continuouanger Besides this, the medical, social, economic, and environmental conseque (OMalley, 1993; Blagden, 1993; Physicians for Human Rights, 1993; USC, 1998, Habib, 2002b) The canonical approach toe efficitools thataccurately detect, Ie every landmine, and other UXO as fast and as safe as possible whilekeeping costm the efficient fulfillment of sutask with high reliabilitpresents vital prerequisites for any region to recover from landmines and associatedttlefield debris by making land safer and allows people to use it without fear Suchprocess involves a high risk and aearance cost per surfaceHo, great deal of effort and time, which results in highhile placing and arming landmines is relativethem is typicallylabor-intensive, expensive, slow, dangerous and low technology operation due to theirLandminesusually simple devices, readily manufacturedto humanitarian dobiective, Mnethodse been developed to detect explosives and landmines(Habib, 2001a)However, the performance of the available mine detection technologielimitedandn,climatic variables, burial depth, grazing angle, andal frats thatfalse positive signals and slow down detection rates to unacceptableIt is almostmpossible with the current technology to assure the detection of every single mine that hastimes l10-20 minesbecomes urgent to develop detection(individurea mine detection), identificationmoval technologies and techniques tomining efficiency by several orders of magnitude to aclhreat of AP mines within a reasonable timeframe and at an affordable cost(Habib, 2007a)Hence, the first essential objective should be to identify whatd by havingsing technology that can facilitaeving and reduci

itarian Demining: Innovative Solutions and the challenges of Technologgood deal of research and development has gone into mechanical mine clearance(militarynd nonmilitary equipment), in order to quickly unearth mines or force them to explodunder the pressure The aim of using machines is ty pically not to clear land from mines, btmachine fulldeveloped specifically to fulfill humanitarian mine clearance objectives and for this, there isno form of any standalone mechanical mine clearance technologies that can give the hightarian mine clearance standards effectively whileindications that mechanical mine clearance can highly contribute to the demining processhen employing the right technologies and techniques bestonal conditionselpful to increase mine clearance rate by automating thegood understanding of the problem and a careful analysis must filter the goals in orderand robotized solutsized with suitable modularized mechanizeell adapted to localtions of minefields can greatly impwell as work efficiency and flexibility Such intelligentlso be useful in quickly verifying that an area is clear of landmines so that manual cleanersthatost likely to be infested In additioproblem presents challenges in robotic mechanics and mobility, serensor integratiefusion, autonomogation, and machine intelligenceFurthermore, themprove the productivity of the overall mine detection process with team cooperation anddinaUXO and abandoned explosive ordnance represent a global challenge as its detection andis very difficult and challenging one from a scientific and technical point of view

Greaneed to be devoted to demining both to immediate cleard to thedevelopment of innovated detection and clearancechapter introduces the probles and its impact It also, focuses on the aspects ofnts and the difficulties facing it Then, the chapter evaluates thement efforts to automate tasks related to demining process wherever possiblemechanization and robotization It aims to evaluate current humanitarian demininginnovative one In addition, it introduces solutions and priorities beside the requirements interms of technical features and design capabilities of a mobile platform thatthe demining process, preserve the life of the mine clearing personnel and enhance safed achcost effectiThe areas of clearing UXO and the abandoned explosive ordnance missCountermine(CM), Explosive Ordnance Disposal,(EOD), HDemining(HD)

tarian Demining the Problem, Difficulties, Pnorities, Demining Technology and5Active ranARO), and UXO Environmental Remediation UER) All areept HD are classified under military clebreaching(the process of undertaken by soldiers to clear a safe path through aminefield that block strategic pathyseedilyttacking fopenetrate rapidly through mines aattacks a target, the pace of this process is veryquick as time is a critical factor in military breaching In military demining, individualneed not be found, and any clearance rate over s0% is generally considered satisfactorill still bedestroyed and killed during and after breaching hascompleted Military mineclearance equipment tends tobe high-tech, large in size, requiringhighly trained logistical personnel The mechanical landmine cleHung different type of mechanical machines, such as, ploughs, flails, rollers, tracks,etcsanitarian deminingos differ from military ones in many respects The objectivesthe military are generallytable for humanitarianling Humanitarian deminingis a critical first step for reconstruction of post-conflict countries and it requires that theto be free ofnd hence the need to detect,reliably and safely every single mine, and other ERW from a targeted ground Thety level It iscarried out in a post-conflict context, and the important outcome of humanitarian deminingto make land safer for daily living and restoration to what itto the hostilities

Inallde to use their land without fear allowing refugees to returnme, schools to be reopened, land to be reused for farming and critical infrastructure to beebuilt(Espirit HPCN, 1997; Bruschini et al, 1999: Habib, 2002b; Goose, 2004)The standard to which clearance must be achieved is extremely high as there is a need toleast 996%(the standard required by UNDHA)successful detection andte( Blagden, 1993)to a depth of 200 mm from the ground surface, and a 100% to a ferding to International mine Action Standards(IMAS) The amount olthe reliability and accuracy of theing process Safetyunacceptable Any system to be developed shoullament this effort, notto hamper it or simply move the problem elsewhere The risks to those carrying out the taskust also be maintainedlower level than might be acceptable in a military situationf land fmining operation The currently available technologies are not suitedhieve thesebjectives of hUntil now detection andumanitariIn residesprimarily in the detection phase first, and then how to increase productivity by speeding up3 LandmineClearance: The DifficultiesLandmines are harmful because of their unknown positions and often difficult to detect Thedevelopment of new demining technologies is difficult because of the tremendous diversity

6itarian Demining: Innovative Solutions and the challenges of Technologof terrains and environmentalns in which mines are laid and because of the widenge of terrains(rocky, rolling, flat, desert, beacheshillside, muddy river, canal best, trench, etc )whereas mines are often laid Thenental conditidifferent climate(hot,ddifferent density of vegetation(heavy, medium, small, none), and type of soil (soft, sand,cultivated, hard clay, coveredcovered with water) In addition,industrial andmade from a variety of materials, metallic and nonmetallic Metal detector works well withbut metal in modernhas been increasingly replaced by plastic andood that making them undetectable by their metallic content There are many methods tomost of them are limited by sensitivity andyortype of terrain, climatic variables, and ground clutter, suchshrapnel and stray metal fragments that produce great number of false positive signalunacceptable levels, Soils are contributingdifficulties as they represent complex natural bodies made up of a heterogeneous mixture of& ineral particles, organic matter, liquid and gaseous, materials, etc In addition soils varylocation to location as a result of soil-forming processes that depend on geologicalHendrickx et al, 2003)

IN addition, the spatial variability of soilthe performbe predicted using a thorough understanding ofof the soil-mineseAP minesbe laid anywhere and can be set off in a number of ways because theactivation mechanisms available fnot the same Mines may have been inbehave quite unpredictableforces finding them with metal detectors Deeper mines may not detonate whenill set them off Trip-wires may be caught up in overgrown bushes, grass or rootsIn addition there is no accurate estimate on the size of the contaminated land and the4 Humanitarian Demining and the challenge of TechnologyThe diversity of the mine threat points out to the need forby deminers with different training levels, cultures, andmchallenge The solution to this problvery difficult because, given the nature of199%3; Habib2002b)Hedevelop detection (individual mfficiency of demining operations by several orders of magnitude to achieve a substantialreduction to the threat of ap mines within a reasonable timeframe and at an affordable cost

tarian Demining the Problem, Difficulties, Pnorities, Demining Technology and7Technolas become thelong-standing problems, and while currentbe effectifar too limited to fullyaddress the huge complex and difficult landmine problem facing the world The challenge isechnical solutions in such hiDetecting and rEplying technology to humanitarian demining is a stimulating objectiveenvironment Ag APms to be a perfect applicationrobots, Hlis need to have a good understanding of the problem and a careful analysis must filter thegoals in order to avoid deception andse the possibility of achieving results(Nicoud,996) In order to approach proper and practical solutions for the problem, there is a needfor the scientists in each discipline andners to share their krd test viablehumanitarian demining

Technologies to be developed should take into account the factsny of the demining operators will have had minimal formal edd that theountries where the equipment is to be used have poor technological infrastructure forddnd clend technolTheregent need to speed up the development to have compact and porthnically feasible, fast response, safe, accurate, reliable, and easy to operdetectorystems with flexible mobile platforms that can be reliably used to detect all types ofchnologies are those inexpensive, rugged, and reliable technical products, ptechniques thathould be transferred foshould be cheap enoughurchased within thenomy and simple enoughle and maintained in a small workshop wefavor technologies that can be manufactured in minedries; technologiestransferable, and which provide employment and economic infrastructure where it is5 The Core Components of Humanitarian Mine Action PlanThe objective of hurian mine action plan is to reduce the risk from landmines towhere economic, social and health developmentfree from the constraints imposed by landmine contamination, and in which the victimsneedThe process of landmineses five components(Habib, 2002b)Locaof the recognized minefields This inclupping, prioritization of marked minefields and resources,etc this should bekill development andbenchmarkhe clearance operation by cutting vegetation andrance, collecting metal fragments, etc Area reduction is considered at this

itarian Demining: Innovative Solutions and the challenges of TechnologApply suitable mine clearance techniques that suit the relevant minefield to locate andmark individual landmines within the identified4 Remove the threat of the detected mines by neutralization: remdetonation5 Apply quality contro(Post clearance inspection) Theneed to verifyand assure with a high level of confidence that the cleared area is free from mined medicalto affected persons In addition, implementing continuous educationalprogram, infrastructure building, job creation and initiating economical support should betablished6Dnd the Prospect of the Available technoloplished through different methods with varying levelstechnology and accuracy, but the most laborious way is still the most reliable

Manual mineesents one of the fundamentalvarious forms overuipment anded over theilitary skills to the needs of a specialist, largely civilian activity (GICHD, 2005) DetectionHumanitarian Demining very often relyprocedure that uses 'prodding or probing excavation tool withinbility The problin the detection phasefound deminers know well how tore it or blow it up When operating in thisdetection phase still relies heavily on metal detectors and/or sniffer dogs, whereby eachThis is normally disually by trained deminer, and by prodding andting thein proddersthe only way to explore the ground, for example when the area is saturated with metallicdebris or when the soil is too conductive or magneticning is still the process that employs the most staff, uses the most resources,nd clears theManual deminers check the ground inch by inch with a metaldetector, a prod and a trowel, Prodder consists of 30 cm lothe soil at a shallow angle(approximately 30 degrees) When the prod touches somethinghard the operative will begin"feeling the contour to find out whether it is a rock, debrisa mine unfors cannot differentiate aor uxo from metallicshrapnel, metal scraps, etc, leads to have false alarms in the range between 100 and 1, 000 forh real mine, each alarm should be treatedwastetime, induces a loss of concentration and increases coManual demining methodsstill perceived slow, repetitive, extremely dangeroiations in the recording of clearance ratesndardized methodology to calculate the costs and rates ofNevertheless, it provides a higher degree of reliability than any other methods and

tarian Demining the Problem, Difficulties, Pnorities, Demining Technology andsent It hasrate per deminer of about 15-25thermal and physical comfort to aid their performance In addition, it is important toair perfoe affecting the(GICHD, 2005)lying posture is mandated as the safest postureminimizes deminer etodanger Even though lying is safer, deminers in Afghanistan, Bosnian and Cambodianostly squat or kneel It is important to consider the proper protection for individualtable tool set to facilitate theprofile probe, a pick-prod, a demining trowelmini-spade, a brush, shears, mine-markers, root cutters, a tripwire feeler,nance toolsoptional extra

Vegetation clearance in humanitariain two categorietion clearance above andregetation clearance below ground level( Busuladzic and Trevelyan, 1999) In general practice,ows examples of different manual prodders and different body postures for demina-gureIand/or by mechaventional manual prodderProdder with force feedbackDifferent body posture for deminerFig 1 Examples of different manual prodders and different body postures for de62 Mechanical EqIs for mine cleagood deal of research and development has gone into motorized mechanical mineThe use of such machines aims tor force them to explode under thepressure of heavy machineryted tools and to aof demin

itarian Demining: Innovative Solutions and the challenges of Technologaking physical contact with the mines A number of mechanical mine clearing machinesmercially available agriculture vehicles of ther similarmechanical nthan a thousand deminers over flat fields They are mostly appropriate and cost effective inlarge and wide areas without dense vegetation or steep grades In small paths, thick bushft or extreme hard soil such machines simply cannot maneuver Mechanical clearanceinside a residential area, soft terrain, heavy vegetation or rocky terrain

Mobility anbility where wheeled vehicles cannot travel efficiently on anything other than flatth steep vertical walls, machines ingeneral cannot climb undefined obstacles, and machines cannot in general deform to getpact such as erosion and soil pollution The logistical problems associated withavy machinery to remote ais criticaluntries with littlinfrastructure andThe aim of using machines is typically not to clear landbut to prepare groundfor post-machine full clearance by manual and mine detection dog teams (GICHD, 2004)along with other possible technologiesteoryhas been developed specifically to fulfill humanitarian mine clbjectives andhis, thereailable mechanicalsieving humanitarianntal impact It has been suggested that few AP blastafter treatment byterrain, and in order to achieve better clearance rate, manual deminers andog teams should follow up to compensate for the likely residual mine threat left by thatclearing machines have beengeneral trend goes from"mechanical demining" towards"mechanically assisted deminingdatable to locainclude but not limited, Vegetation cutters, Flails and Light-Flails, Panther mine clearingvehicle, Armored bulldozer, Ploughs and the rake plough, the M2 Surface"V"mine p(SMF), Armored road grader(US Department of Defense, 1999; Humanitarian Minet cat99: Department of Defense, 2002 Habib, 2002a; GICHromising results that need to be enhanced further given suitable conditions agile ng2006a) Demining operationsd by some mechanica machinesappropriate target (GICHD, 2004) Figure 2 illustrates examples off the availableechanical machines used for demining